Space-Time Fabric

Let’s assume that the space-time fabric is situated within our entire closed universe and matter is scattered throughout like small insects trapped on a giant spider web.  And let’s also assume that the space-time fabric along with the matter is in constant motion, either accelerating because of gravity since they are the same thing (Einstein’s principle of equivalence), or decelerating because of entropy, or shrinking because of dark energy, which quite possibly may be found in the quantum world.

So, finally let’s assume that dark energy is scattered about everywhere in the universe, fighting to overcome the original expansion from the Big Bang and matter and dark matter’s gravitational attraction in an effort to pull everything in back on itself to finally collapse into a Big Crunch.  And mathematics tells us that dark energy has about three times as much force as dark matter and all visible matter, so shrinking may well be the strongest force in the universe.

From our perspective, the matter probably would appear to be expanding at increasing speeds.  Yet, if the fabric were alternating back and forth between expanding and contracting, we might not be able to recognize the difference between expansion and contraction from our perspective.  It might look exactly the same to us on the planet earth.

The matter in the universe would warp the space-time fabric and perhaps, vice-versa, but we would not detect these variations from our perspective.  So, what can we surmise from our perspective?

Let’s again assume that the Big Bang was the start of expansion of the space-time fabric when all matter was very close together and should have slowed down time.  As the space-time fabric expanded, it would have also expanded the distance between mass in the universe, thus causing time to speed up.  Let’s assume that we would not detect this time difference, just as we would not detect it in a spaceship traveling toward Mars.

So depending on our position and speed, time can appear to move faster or slower to us relative to others in a different part of space-time.  The phenomenon is called “gravitational time dilation.”  In a nutshell, it just means time moves slower as gravity increases.

A time reversal may simply be caused when the expansion away from masses becomes a contraction back to an increase in gravity from the narrowing of the distance between the matter in the universe.  Time would initially move faster as everything expanded, but would move slower as everything contracted.

Again, we could not detect this time reversal or the increase or decrease in time.  However, we could see the effect of time going backwards by examining ancient galaxies, whose light passed by us billions of years ago.  When we can actually see those galaxies which existed billions of years ago, it is only because we are in a time reversal headed back toward the Big Bang, which will be more aptly named the “Big Crunch” for our future.  Otherwise, we could not see the sight of these old galaxies, which would have zipped by at the speed of light never to be seen again.  Just count your lucky stars that you cannot see the Big Bang… yet.

Time Reversal

We know very little about deep oceans and the center of our planet.  Clearly, we know even less about our solar system and even far less about our galaxy.  Guess how insignificantly little we know about our universe.  So, how will we ever know what is going on within our universe?  It seems that only our imagination saddled with logic has a chance to succeed in solving this mystery.

For a starter, it is possible that everything in our universe is interconnected.  Einstein’s space-time fabric encases the stars, planets, and other mass, including black matter.  This fabric connects solar systems and galaxies to form our universe.

But the next step requires a giant leap of our imagination.  What could make this space-time universe perpetual?  After the Big Bang, wouldn’t entropy cause the expansion to slow down?  Yet, we know that galaxies are moving away from each other at increasing speeds.  If we do not use our imagination, we can only visualize our universe expanding forever until solar systems end up in a Deep Freeze off somewhere by themselves.  But this would describe an open universe that expands forever with no boundaries, which does not seem likely.

What does appear to be more probable than not is that the galaxies are shrinking away from each other at an increasing rate.  Deflation could also cause a “red-shift” effect as the galaxies were shrinking away from each other.  But how did our space-time fabric go from expanding to contracting?  Well, if there were a significant force, perhaps dark energy, that could cause the space-time fabric to reverse direction, then our universe would be a perpetual motion machine, moving back and forth in time.  Remember, I said this required a giant leap of our imagination.  The space-time fabric would be similar to a balloon that inflated and then deflated.

It all depends on your perspective.  From where we sit, time reversal sounds impossible.  But from outside our closed universe, this movement would appear to be a simple expansion and contraction of the universe just like lungs that first fill up with oxygen and then deflate as the oxygen exits the lungs.  Einstein introduced time as the fourth dimension.  So, the dimension of time could easily move up and down as it expands and contracts.  But like I said, from our perspective, it would appear to be going forward in time and then reverse going back to the past.

Even though this sounds a little bit extraordinary, it may be the best theory we can come up without more evidence.  Here’s the bottom line:  there is no other explanation for being able to see an ancient galaxy, no longer sending out light, that was formed about 670 million years after the Big Bang.  The light from the ancient galaxy would have traveled at the speed of light and thus would have passed us by billions of years ago, never to be seen again.  The light from this ancient galaxy which died billions of years ago would have zipped past our field of vision, since expansion, as a general rule, would have propelled us at less than the speed of light.  In other words, how could we possibly see this light through the Hubble telescope unless we had reversed time and were headed back toward that original light?  When we finally see the Big Bang, it may not be a good thing for us.

Of course this sounds like science fiction, but when you consider time as being part of a fabric, it is logical to conclude that the fabric can expand and contract.  Time reversal may be nothing more than moving from expansion to contraction.  And dark energy, which currently is only a mathematical creation, could be a likely candidate to cause this reversal.

Again this is only speculation, but it is possible that dark energy is intertwined in the space-time fabric, so that it can twist one direction until entropy takes over and then it turns around like a rubber band to unwind in the other direction.  And dark energy could be powerful enough to keep this fabric twisting back and forth forever, first expanding and then contracting.  Even though there is little evidence to support this hypothesis, it is logically creative.

You might wonder why we don’t also reverse our aging or go backwards in time from the 21st century to the 20th century.  The answer is because the time reversal occurred billions of years ago.  We probably have been deflating the space-time fabric in a past-future direction for eons.  Basically, you would detect no difference between aging in the present-future or the past-future.

So, why would we ever be able to see the light from ancient galaxies as we moved back in time?  I don’t have a perfect answer, but I believe that we may be able to see light from ancient galaxies and even the Big Bang itself since that light is encased in the time-fabric.  In other words, as the space-time fabric collapses, our universe will be miniaturized so that we will be able to see the light from current galaxies, ancient galaxies, and even the Big Bang, which then may become the Big Crunch.

This theory of expansion and contraction of the time-space fabric would also comport with this being a closed universe, which is most likely the case.  It is not probable that our universe with its mass interconnected by a space-time fabric has no boundary.  Interestingly enough, quantum theory may assist us at this point.  Even though atoms may not appear to have well defined borders, there is an end point where other atoms come together as building blocks for matter.  As strange as the quantum world is, there still probably are boundaries.  And it may well be that the boundaries between the quantum world and the relativity world explain why we cannot reconcile these two worlds.

Even in living things, cells also have membranes at their outer perimeter that contain everything within.  Separations within our universe and between universes, if others exist, may be quite normal.

Our universe is very likely closed, so why would we limit our imagination to our universe just expanding from a Big Bang?  Contraction also must be considered, which may lead to a perpetual Big Bang-Big Crunch theory.  In effect, we could bang and crunch forever.

Creation of Supermassive Black Holes

Cosmologists have been offering theories as to how supermassive (SM) black holes, typically found in the center of galaxies, were created.  But they are analyzing creation from the standpoint of evolution.  In other words, they are starting with dying stars, which become black holes, and then having black holes eat other matter including cannibalizing other black holes, and through accretion over the years, they evolve into SM black holes.

This is an interesting approach to creation; however, it seems more likely that SM black holes have been in existence long before any evolutionary process could have created them.  In fact, scientists have discovered SM black holes very early after the Big Bang.  So, there was not enough time for stellar black holes to accumulate to form intermediate or very massive black holes, which later became SM black holes.

Even if Population 3 stars, which had short lives, collapsed into quasars and these merged, there was not sufficient time to create the multiple-billion solar mass that each SM black hole would have required.  Experts argue that it would have taken one out of every five stars currently in the Milky Way Galaxy to create the mass for its SM black hole.  Thus, it is more likely that the SM black hole for each galaxy was created when the galaxy itself was formed.  And not from stars within the galaxy, but from something else, perhaps the Creator Himself, that made the SM black hole an integral and critical part of the galaxy.  In fact, the galaxies probably would not function without the SM black hole in the center like the nucleus of a cell.

It is interesting how we examine both evolution and creation as a continual growth process, moving forward in time always toward something bigger and better.  But we fail to think about entropy, a powerful force that can put the brakes on expansion and may even be able to reverse its direction.  What if SM black holes, created after the Big Bang, were the seeds for galaxies?  What if all the black holes and our visible universe were one-third of the universe’s mass and dark energy were the other two-thirds?  What if the 1:3 ratio remained the same between the matter in our universe, but the entire universe were shrinking?  If you were looking at other stars, you would not notice the shrinking since all matter would remain in proportion to the other mass.

In effect, God is the Creator of this amazing perpetual-motion machine called the universe.  I may be wrong, but I believe that it is very possible that there are two major cycles in this mechanism:  (1) expansion when the matter expands like a balloon and (2) contraction when the matter deflates and shrinks in size.  In both these processes, SM black holes remain as the centerpiece for galaxies.  Even though SM black holes do grow through consumption of other mass, they also expel mass, so the theory that they are evolving over billions of years probably has little value.  However, the fact that SM black holes may be shrinking in the second cycle makes sense since we are seeing light from ancient galaxies that we could not see other than moving back in time to that event.  The light from the dead galaxies, otherwise, would have passed by us billions of years ago.

Fabric of our Universe

The very fabric of our universe is comprised of dark energy.  Even though we don’t know what dark energy is, we know mathematically that it exists, and we believe we know that by definition it is that thread of fabric that holds our universe together.  As it weaves through the universe, it seems to cement dark matter and the visible universe, which is approximately the other 24% of the mass.

We can only speculate as to what causes dark energy to control dark matter and the billions and billions of stars in the universe.  Our speculation is limited substantially by our lack of knowledge about this major force in our universe and our many limitations about what dark matter is and our perspectives of the visible universe.

For example, if we consider the ancient galaxies that no longer exist as part of our visible universe because we can see them, we must ask why.  Why would we consider matter that no longer is in our universe to be part of our visible universe?  Does it still have mass if it only exists in a telescope?  And are all of our ancestors that have evolved from ancient galaxies into old galaxies into today’s galaxies all counted as part of the visible universe, so that we are duplicating our present mass through addition of past mass?

And why can we still see the light from an ancient galaxy whose light went out billions of years ago?  In other words, why didn’t the light from that galaxy zip past us at the speed of light billions of years ago, never to be seen again?  Even if you argue that our universe has been expanding about the speed of light, we should be able to see the entire past or evolution of our universe.  As far as I know, we cannot see the Milky Way galaxy evolving in stages from infancy to its present stage, but we can see ancient galaxies that are no longer with us.  Why is that?

Again, we can only speculate, but we have to get way out of our scientific boxes… so far away from our box that we aren’t even using the scientific tools in that box.  Perhaps, we even turn to a bit of science fiction, which is another way of saying: “We will be using our imagination to propose a solution to this riddle.”

When we consider past events and matter to be part of our visible universe, we do this understanding that everything that we see in a telescope is something that happened in the past.  Even when you examine the moon without the aid of a telescope, you are seeing a past moon.  So, it seems that time must also be considered as being interwoven in our fabric of the universe.

Typically, we consider the past as history.  The dinosaurs have had their day and they no longer are useful in our universe.  But what if we expanded our imaginations to embrace everything that has happened, that is happening, and that will happen into the fabric of our universe?  What if time were not segmented into past, present, and future through the magic of dark energy?  What if these elements of time existed only in our minds as we managed our daily lives, but had a different context in the endless universe?

There are many ways that dark energy and dark matter can twist and turn time just like in a tornado.  Time might be bent or warped so that we could see ancient galaxies.  Time could also be reversed like a spring that pushes out and then bounces back.  Again, only our imagination can carry us to any of these conclusions.  However, these ideas are more plausible than those offered by those cosmologists today, who expect a “Deep Freeze” in our universe’s future.

What is the answer?  I don’t know.  Only God knows and He is not telling you until you reach the other side.  However, I consider the afterlife to be the most exciting of times… to be able to explore the wonders of God’s universe behind the scenes.  It will be the best of times to be able to see how our universe was created.

Looking At Our Past

If you look into a mirror, you will see a younger you.  The image that bounces back to you was you when you were just a tiny bit younger.

Your reflection also will be a fraction of a second older than when you first looked into the mirror.  Time has moved forward in the microsecond that allowed your image to speed to the mirror and return back to your eyes.

These sound like contradictions.  How can your image be a younger you when time has moved into the future?  Can I actually be younger in the future?  Perhaps this is possible depending on our perspective.  If we examine a stationary world using clocks, calendars, and newspapers, we will see each day as another step into the future.  If our frame of reference is expanded to include a moving universe, carrying us to a different time, we might find ourselves actually getting younger rather than older.

What?  How is that possible?  Well, as we travel at increased speeds, time actually slows down.  We age less at these higher accelerations.  Of course, nobody knows what happens as you enter a black hole, but some scientists believe that time stops and then reverses itself.

Most scientists think that the “red shift” is an indicator that our universe is expanding at an increasing speed.  It is more likely that our universe is collapsing at an accelerating speed. The red shift would result from either expansion or contraction (expanding away has the same red shift effect as shrinking away from other objects in the universe, except when gravity rules as it does within galaxies and between close galaxies like the Milky Way and Andromeda), but with entropy in play with expansion, contraction is the more logical conclusion since the speeds are accelerating.

If we are, in fact, shrinking exponentially, we should be able to see the light from ancient galaxies.  As it turns out, we can.  If we were expanding rapidly, we would not be able to see the ancient galaxies because their light would have sped by us at the speed of light billions of years ago.

So as we stare into space, we see ancient galaxies that may include our atoms when they were much younger.  Since they no longer exist, how can we see them if we are moving away from the Big Bang?  It is more likely that we are collapsing back toward the Big Bang and that is why we can see ourselves when we were younger.

Fabric of Spacetime

Would we understand our universe better by thinking of it as a web of spacetime that either: (1) bends around itself or (2) expands first into a macroworld and then contracts into a microworld until it is ready to expand again?

Einstein in his theory of relativity discussed space and time or “spacetime” as if it were a single interwoven continuum.  By combining space and time into a single entity and additionally marrying a three-dimensional universe (length, width, height) with a fourth dimension (time), we create Minkowski space.  And even though Einstein was disappointed that he never could unify the supergalactic universe of gravity with the subatomic world of quantum mechanics, this fabric might well extend from the macroworld into the microworld.  The Big Bang probably is the best example of this nexus.  But we probably leave the four dimensions behind when we journey into the subatomic world.  The quantum world could be ruled by dark energy.  We just don’t know.

Many cosmologists propose that the universe is expanding so that billions of years from now, earth will push into a dark corner of the universe with no sun or other stars in the sky, since our corner of the universe will settle into a “Deep Freeze.”  Of course, this makes no sense if you believe we exist in a closed universe.  A closed universe would probably have edges that were elliptical like orbits within galaxies or the orbits within atoms.  A closed universe also portends an infinite spacetime that could bend around an orbit or could expand and contract forever.

So, the first significant question is:  Is our universe closed or open?  Well, if you believe in the Big Bang, and there certainly is sufficient evidence to prove that event, you must argue that the universe is closed.  Why?  Because an event like the Big Bang had an event horizon, similar to the one predicted at the fringe of a black hole.  In other words, there is another side of the black hole and the Big Bang that we can never see.  Spacetime may stop at this point.  This separation creates an edge or event horizon that could not logically exist in an open universe.

If the universe were closed, then the next significant question is: Is perpetuity served by a curved spacetime or by constant expansions and contractions?  Or is it a little of both?

We know that the strength of a gravitational field can slow the passage of time for an object seen by an observer from a distance.  We also know that time speeds up for space travelers and even for those who reach the top of the Empire State Building.  Those of us, who remain on the ground, age slower.  If we were able to travel to a black hole, as we approached the event horizon, we would probably circle the dark matter close to the speed of light; however, observers on earth would think we were barely moving as time slowed down.

In effect, spacetime would be compressed near the event horizon.  And spacetime might even stop at the entrance of a black hole.  Logically, this may be the portal to a microworld where gravity goes wild and turns the reins over to quantum mechanics.  An example on a smaller scale could be when a star expands into a red giant, then contracts into a white dwarf, shrinking into a black hole, and finally explodes into elements that will eventually come back together again through gravity.  The Fusion-Fission cycle sounds like a miniature Big Crunch and Big Bang, doesn’t it?

And how does the curvature of spacetime come into play?  Well, we know that light bends around large objects like black holes.  We also know that objects bend the spacetime fabric.  We don’t know if the bending of spacetime is such that it encloses itself.  For example if we examined the earth from our perspective on earth, we might think it were flat.  But if we were in space, we would see the curvature of the earth.  That same principle may apply to our perspective of the universe.  We might view the universe as flat from where we are, but if we could see a larger segment of the universe, we might see it as being circular.

The temporal and spatial aspects of spacetime may be part of a unified fabric, but they may also operate on different principles.  In other words, space may move back and forth like an accordion, while time may travel both forward to the future and then back to the past.  The spatial movement is more in line with what we can understand using something like a coordinate grid to define where objects are in relation with each other.  The temporal movement is a more abstract manifold defining when events occur.  It would be difficult for us to imagine that time could move backward into the past.  However, there may be proof that it is doing just that.

We are able to see the light from ancient galaxies, dating back to the earliest galaxies in our universe.  How is that possible?  The light from that galaxy would have zipped in front of us billions of years ago.  Since the galaxy hasn’t existed for billions of years, it hasn’t emitting light for eons.  So, how can we view the light today?

Well, you might argue that spacetime is not regulated by the speed limit of light.  And that probably is true, but remember that there are two parts of spacetime.  Space may expand faster than the speed of light, but this probably occurred for only a short period of time after the Big Bang.  Time, on the other hand, may slow down and then reverse itself.  We are very familiar with spatial reversals of the north and south poles and other reversals that are part of the nature of our universe.  But it is difficult to imagine a temporal conversion that starts heading into the future and then backs into the past.  Quite frankly, it is a concept reserved for science fiction.  However, what else can explain the sighting of ancient galaxies?

Furthermore, we know that the older galaxies have a red shift that evidences an increasing acceleration.  Why would they be moving at increased speeds since gravity would have less of an impact on their movement due to entropy?  Well, it might be because of the additional aspect of time moving backwards.

An increased red shift of ancient galaxies viewed from our perspective may be caused by:  (1) a shrinking of the galaxies in a spatial movement away from each other or (2) a reversal of time creating the synergistic appearance of spatial and temporal movement in multiplying effects.  In other words, if you were to measure the distance from A to B and then include time constriction in that equation or consider the repetition of that movement from A to B by first going forward and then backward in time, your red shift might increase.

It is interesting to note that a red shift could be detected if two galaxies were shrinking just the same as if they were expanding away from each other.  The spacetime fabric may have billions of galaxies embedded in this fabric, so that an expansion of the fabric could also expand the galaxies.  The galaxies would be glued to the fabric and thus would not be flying away from each other.  It seems more likely that the galaxies that currently exist are either being drawn to each other by gravity, like the Milky Way and Andromeda, or they are slowly moving away from each other with only a minor red shift.

So what would explain the significant red shift among galaxies that are further away, who either are no longer in existence or would have very little gravitational tug on the other galaxies?  It might be caused by a mixture of temporal and spatial movements.   Since a contraction of the fabric may have the same effect on the galaxies, the galaxies might be shrinking in a proportional manner so that it would not be detected from our perspective.  As the galaxies got smaller, they would pull away from each other which would increase the red shift.

It appears to be more likely that a red shift would be evidence of a contraction rather than an expansion, since a proportional expansion, in theory, would be like slowly filling a polka-dotted balloon.  Those dots, signifying galaxies, would not separate very much as the balloon gradually expanded.  However, the dots would quickly reduce in size as the air came rushing out of the balloon with a time reversal.  When you add in the potential for time reversal, then the case for a shrinking universe in both space and time becomes more attractive and may explain the substantial increase in the red shift as we view ancient galaxies.

If we can look back and see ancient galaxies, why can’t we see the Big Bang.  Well, it is likely that we will never see anything except the results of the Big Bang.  In other words, we should be able to see the smoke from the gun, but not the gun itself.  And we may have stumbled upon this smoke.

There is an anomaly within the universe which is about 1.8 billion light years across and is located around three billion light years away from our solar system.  Currently, this is the largest structure we have found in the universe.  Little energy emanates from this circular area, which contains about 10,000 fewer galaxies than in other areas of the universe.  In effect, this anomaly has about 20 percent less matter inside it.

This cold spot within our universe has perplexed scientists since 2004, when it was discovered as an oddity in the otherwise homogeneous cosmic microwave background radiation.  This cosmic microwave background which can be traced back to the Big Bang is spread evenly throughout our universe except this area, which is about 2.7 degrees K cooler than the average temperature in the universe.  This anomaly could be the smoking gun for the Big Bang.

One other point that should be mentioned is:  There is a proportion of 3:8:24 that seems to consistently act as a foundation of our universe.  Mathematically we know that about 3% of our universe is visible matter, 24% is dark matter, and 72% is dark energy.  This division of matter and energy in the universe is a ratio of 3:8:24.  This same proportion applies to hydrogen, helium, and all other elements.  This could be a coincidence, but it is not likely.

But what about the missing 1%?  Our formula only accounts for 99% of the universe.  What accounts for the other 1%?  I can only guess, but it could be the ignition or the unknown force that keeps the universe constantly moving from expansion to contraction and back again.

And how does this apply to the closed universe?  Well, we know that neither matter nor energy is created or destroyed in this universe.  The proportionate division makes sense in a closed universe that is balanced for the most part, but needs that 1% to reverse the polarity so that our universe is a perpetual time and recycling machine.

Acceleration of Distant Galaxies

Scientists have observed that objects three times more distant are accelerating three times faster than nearby galaxies.  And this proportional increase seems to continue the further out we examine galaxies.  In other words, galaxies six times further out would have speeds six times more than our acceleration.

So what is causing the increased acceleration?  Well, if you believe only in the inflation theory which ends in a Deep Freeze, then you might argue that the galaxies near us are slowing down to speeds less than those of the past.  This would mean that the universe would eventually come to an end with the stars dying out and our universe coming to a halt.

However, the constant multiplications with the distance would quickly run past the speed of light.  Perhaps a doubling would be under that speed limit, but a tripling would be suspect and four and five times our acceleration speed would most likely exceed 186,000 miles per second.   There should be a point of diminishing returns on this increased acceleration, so that the multiplication would start slowing down somewhere in deep space, but this has not been observed.  The increased speeds through straight-line multiplication do not make sense.

But the inflation theory also makes no sense in a universe that has orbits in both the macro and micro world.  This inflation theory of entropy, if decreasing in so many multiples from early accelerations, would have slowed us down to nothing.  The stars would have already exhausted their hydrogen supply.  We would be in the Deep Freeze.  And this is not the case.

So what else might be causing this anomaly of rapid acceleration, going back in time?  If the space-time fabric could both expand and then contract, there would be no limitation by the speed of light because this speed limit only applies to objects.  And if we are now in a contraction stage, then from our perspective, distant galaxies might appear to be multiplying the speeds when it is really a duplication of speeds.  In other words, as the near galaxies contracted backwards, they would only have normal acceleration.  But the distant galaxies that were also contracting back in time would have layers of acceleration from the new acceleration added on to the past accelerations.

Further, as we viewed more distant galaxies, the speeds of objects measured in the space-time fabric could also be layered with multiple accelerations which exceeded the speed of light.  So that the six times could actually be caused by a shrinking space-time fabric, carrying the galaxies back towards the Big Bang.  Of course, these are theories that must be challenged by hard facts, but right now that is all we have.

The acceleration may stop where the space-time fabric reversed itself.  The multiplication of accelerations would not continue into the point where the ancient galaxies were in a space-time fabric that was expanding.  It would probably only go back to the point when the space-time fabric was shrinking.  It will be interesting to examine the multiplications that we discover in the future.

Expanding the Expansion Theory

Why do scientists get so entrenched in the theory that our universe is expanding?  Since Edwin Hubble discovered the red shift, scientists have gotten into the expansion rut and can’t seem to entertain other possibilities.

There is a major practical problem with the expansion theory.  It does not comport with the design of the universe, which typically is based on orbits in both the macro and micro worlds.  The expansion theory starts with the Big Bang and ends with the Big Freeze with all the stars eventually consuming all their hydrogen and with everything coming to an end somewhere in deep space.  There is absolutely nothing in our universe that resembles this design.

It is more likely that we have a universe which is much larger than we can even imagine, so that we cannot see the slight curvature of this circular universe.  Our current understanding of our universe may be similar to how early man perceived our earth as being flat.  Scientists have determined that the visible universe is only about 3 to 4% of the mass in our universe, so we can see only about 50 billion light years in all directions of our observable universe.  But how could our universe possibly have expanded approximately 100 billion light years within 13.8 billion years?

It is possible that the early expansion could have traveled faster than the speed of light, but this does not explain everything.  Could the diameter of 100 billion light years, much of which is in the past, be part of a space-time fabric that could expand faster than the speed of light?  And could that space-time fabric both expand and collapse like an accordion?  What if the time reversed from a Big Bang to a Big Crunch or from present-future to past-future?  Would we be able to detect the reversal?  Or would it all appear the same to us from our perspective?

If there were no reversal in the space-time fabric, how could we ever view the light from ancient galaxies, which no longer exist, since that light would have traveled faster than our expansion?  In other words, how could we see a light that streaked into the future past us billions of light years ago?

But scientists say that Hubble’s red shift proves that we are expanding.  However, if the galaxies in our universe were collapsing at the same rate, wouldn’t this also have a red shift?  In other words, these galaxies would be shrinking away from each other with the same red shift as if they were expanding away from each other.

I can only ask questions, but scientists who are stuck in the expansion theory do not want to hear these questions.  That is unfortunate because questions lead to better answers and, in this case, better theories.

 

Time Reversal

A time reversal initially seems very improbable to us.  How could time reverse itself, going from present-future to past-future?  It seems like something you would find in a science fiction novel.  Yet, it not only is possible, but it also may be probable.

It depends on your perspective.  From where we sit, it sounds impossible.  But from outside our closed universe, this movement would appear to be a simple expansion and contraction of the universe just like lungs that first fill up with oxygen and then deflate as the oxygen exits the lungs.  Einstein introduced time as the fourth dimension.  So, the dimension of time could easily move up and down as it expands and contracts.  But like I said, from our perspective, it would appear to be going forward in time and then reverse going back to the past.

The reason why this is probable is because our universe is unlikely to be headed toward a dead-end, sometimes called the Deep Freeze when all matter and energy comes to a halt as it expands so far away from all other matter and energy that it will sit motionless in a deep, dark environment with no sunlight since all the hydrogen will be consumed.  But our universe is based on cycles and orbits and recycling, so there may be no end to our universe.

Such an endless universe could have either of two main forces driving it:  (1) a closed universe stretching out into an orbit that was beyond our sight lines or (2) a closed universe that alternated between a Big Bang (expansion) and a Big Crunch (contraction).  I call this the “Incredible Shrinking Universe.”  In this second scenario, the universe would be a four dimensional entity that would move in and out like an accordion, first expanding and then contracting.  If time were the fourth dimension, it could be framed less by a location than by a moment in time.  Space-time could both extend into the future and then collapse into the future.

The thing that really makes us think about this possibility is when the Hubble telescope views ancient galaxies that are no longer sending out light, we should not see them if we have been expanding at a speed slower than the speed of light.  Of the two forces mentioned above, if our universe were a huge orbit, then the light from the ancient galaxies would have to lap around the universe again for us to see them.  However, the second theory works better because we could see the ancient galaxies if we were moving back in time towards the Big Bang.

You might wonder why we don’t also reverse our aging or go backwards in time from the 21st century to the 20th century.  The answer is because the time reversal occurred billions of years ago.  We have been deflating the space-time fabric in a past-future direction for eons.  Basically, you would detect no difference between aging in the present-future or the past-future.

So, why would we be able to see the light from ancient galaxies as we moved back in time?  I don’t have a perfect answer, but I believe that we may be able to see light from ancient galaxies and even the Big Bang itself since it existed before the time reversal.  In other words, as the space-time fabric collapses, it will move all the way back to the Big Bang, which becomes the Big Crunch.  We should be able to see ancient galaxies as we cross the reversal zone and literally go back in time to our origins.  This may tell us that we have already crossed that reversal line and will eventually see the Big Bang itself.

Edge of the Universe

I have written many articles on why our universe is most likely closed.  So, if it were closed, where is the boundary?  Well, the universe could have an oval orbit like many objects, large and small, but let’s be more adventurous.  Perhaps, we should think like Einstein and examine a four-dimensional universe.

When you add the fourth dimension, time, you need to be creative since the edge of our universe might be much more different than what you would expect in a three-dimensional object.  So, what if the boundary were flexible like a time bubble that could expand and contract?  What if the edge were not so much a three-dimensional location, but instead a moment in time?

Let’s speculate.  What if the Big Bang were nothing more than the entry point for all the mass and energy?  Maybe after several million years, the Big Bang event, which probably was a fireball, started to cool down.  The lights went out.  Quite possibly, there were about 100 million years of no activity that was visible.

The Dark Ages of our universe more than likely saw a reversal from expansion to contraction.  The first stars and ancient galaxies probably were not formed until the hydrogen gases were compacted to the point that the heat was so intense that they ignited, much like stars are created today.

A majority of scientists believe that the universe is expanding at an increasing rate.  I suppose that this is possible if dark energy were drawing the visible matter out into infinity, but that requires an open universe with no boundaries.  If you believe our universe is closed, the only theory that makes sense is that the universe is collapsing at an increasing speed as it races back toward its origin.

Why is our universe closed?  Everything that we know in our universe has design.  Even activities that appear to be chaotic have a reason and lead to a purpose.  God is the Designer.  As an example, electrons, planets, and galaxies move in closed orbits.  God’s world moves in cycles.  Since we cannot see the other side of the Big Bang, there must be a boundary that hides it.  The galaxies in the universe seem to be interconnected within an oval egg shell that expands and contracts over time.  The law of conservation of matter and energy states that matter and energy is neither created nor destroyed in our universe.  This matter and energy that remains the same total amount forever must be encased by a boundary for this theory to be true.

An open universe with only expansion that continues into a Deep Freeze with all matter reaching a final destination that has no purpose does not fit within God’s design.  An open universe theory supports a chaotic, purposeless system that is advocated by atheists.  Large stars would burn out, leaving only smaller stars to burn out, until all the hydrogen was used.  Scientists believe that the Deep Freeze will be the end of our universe.  But it serves no purpose.  It does not fit within God’s ultimate design for the universe.  God did not design a dying universe.

So, if time created the boundary for our universe, which can alternate between expansion and contraction, does that mean that time can go backwards?  It might from our perspective.  In other words, from our position on earth, a reversal might appear to be headed back in time to the ancient galaxies and the Big Bang event.  But if we were outside the time bubble, we might simply view our bubble getting very small as the compaction increased into the Big Crunch.

What in the universe could be driving this time machine, alternating between expansion and contraction?  Well, since our visible universe is only about 3% of the universe, dark matter and dark energy are the likely forces.

Even though this is highly speculative, it is always interesting to ask the question:  why can Hubble see the ancient galaxies?  If the light from that ancient object, which no longer exists, started its race in a straight line toward Hubble about 13 billion yeas ago wouldn’t it have passed us?  If you believe we have been constantly expanding since the Big Bang at less than the speed of light, how could we see any ancient light?

I suppose you could argue that the universe is curved so that the light from ancient galaxies has raced around and is coming back for a second viewing.  But it seems more likely, from our perspective, that we are going back in time towards not only ancient light, but also the Big Bang itself.

Again, this is only a somewhat edgy theory, but it is possible that our universe is a time machine that can alternate between a Big Bang and a Big Crunch forever.