In order to fairly assess whether God exists or not, we must first define who God is. So, God is the creator of the universe. Assuming there was creation, then everything in our universe, visible or invisible, was created by the force of God.
According to the First Law of Thermodynamics, all matter and energy in the universe can neither be created nor destroyed in our closed system. Therefore, God must have created our universe outside or inside our universe. I include both outside and inside because our universe could have originated from either direction or from both. We simply don’t know.
We do know from the red-shift effect that galaxies are speeding away from each other at an increasing rate. Again, this could mean that the galaxies, which appear to be remaining proportional to each other, are either expanding further out into space or are shrinking away from each other. Actually, the later theory is a better fit to explain the increasing speeds. If the galaxies were expanding toward space, they would be decreasing in speed. Whereas if they are decreasing in size headed toward a massive micro-world, they would be increasing speed.
It is important to consider how insignificant humans are in the scope of things. We have been around only a short percentage of time on earth and even less of a percent in the universe. We are sitting on a small planet in a large solar system, dwarfed by the huge Milky Way Galaxy. Then there are hundreds of millions of galaxies in the universe. And all this visible matter is only 4% of the universe, because 96% is invisible dark matter and dark energy.
So, back to the original question: Does God exist? I guess one answer is that nobody knows for certain, and nobody will know until after death. I suppose one way to know after death is that if you are still thinking, you are on your way to meeting your creator. If you are not thinking, then there is nothing beyond death and this discussion did not matter. But it seems logical that if there is any chance at all that you might still be thinking after death, you should consider some alternatives. One of these alternatives is that there is a God, who will be examining you after death.
Could you ever prove that there is a God based on the evidence in this universe? Not likely because the creation, if it occurred, was outside this universe. If that is true, then you cannot prove there is a God through observation, a posteriori. You can only prove God through deductive reasoning, a priori.
The first basis for a logical conclusion that there is a God is found in causal relationships in our universe. We see that there are causal links throughout our world just like dominoes lined up so that when one strikes the next in line, it falls hitting the next, and so on as they continue to fall one after another. We are not aware of any spontaneous activity that started the dominoes falling. All we know is that our universe is in motion, whether expanding or contracting, it doesn’t matter… it is moving. So did something outside our universe start this movement?
The second logical conclusion that there is a God is based on intelligent design. How could complex systems like eyes, DNA, and brains come from anything but a skillful creator? Evolution and natural section can carry this process only so far. Natural selection does a great job in explaining why finches with special beaks adapted to the environment and survived over other finches, but this scientific theory struggles when it attempts to explain how Homo sapiens evolved from one-celled animals through mutations alone. We are aware of mutations in structural genes, but there do not appear to be sufficient mutations in developmental genes to permit this type of development.
And the universe itself has a design which we fancy that we understand, but, in reality, do not. And the quantum world has a design which we admit that we do not understand and probably never will. If you say that you are going to have an architect design you a house, you plan on going to somebody who creates houses. Most of us do not imagine that there are designs without designers. It seems rather logical. Thus, it is reasonable that God designed the universe.
The third fact that allows us to deduce that there is a God is through our intuitive powers and beliefs. We look outside two windows and watch the existence of our species. It is possible that we are imagining all this and that there is really nothing there at all. But we experience pain and discomfort and pleasure, so we accept that something is going on. But is it real? Well, the pain felt pretty real. When I hit my finger with a hammer, I think reality was very apparent. However, we instinctively know that there must be something more than this. We ask ourselves: is this all there is? We struggle through existence and then we die. Isn’t there something beyond death? Otherwise, would any of this make sense? Existentialists say that life is absurd. I would say that life is absurd without God. We believe in God because we instinctively have faith that there is something else beyond a mundane existence. Even if this is just a pipe dream based on human nature that we must be worth more than just a dollar’s worth of ingredients, it is a solid basis for the belief that there is something else.
And the fourth and final fact is that there is no downside in believing in God. We can logically arrive at a belief in God based on the fact that if there is no God, we don’t suffer for that belief. However, if we do not believe in God and there is a God, there is a horrible downside. Even if the chances of there being a God were a million to one, I would still bet on their being a God because of the terrible consequences for those who didn’t bet on God. Do the cost-benefits analysis. It costs you nothing to believe in God with unbelievable benefits. It also costs you nothing to not believe in God, but with paralyzing consequences if you are wrong. And compare your short stay on earth with a potential eternity if you are still thinking after death. The consequences for picking the wrong horse in this race are monumental. It’s not like a time-out for ten minutes. It could be a time-out for eternity.
All these things are worth considering. And if you still choose to not believe in God, that’s fine. That’s your choice. You have the freedom to make choices as long as you know you must bear the consequences, whatever they might be.