Time Reversal

We know very little about deep oceans and the center of our planet.  Clearly, we know even less about our solar system and even far less about our galaxy.  Guess how insignificantly little we know about our universe.  So, how will we ever know what is going on within our universe?  It seems that only our imagination saddled with logic has a chance to succeed in solving this mystery.

For a starter, it is possible that everything in our universe is interconnected.  Einstein’s space-time fabric encases the stars, planets, and other mass, including black matter.  This fabric connects solar systems and galaxies to form our universe.

But the next step requires a giant leap of our imagination.  What could make this space-time universe perpetual?  After the Big Bang, wouldn’t entropy cause the expansion to slow down?  Yet, we know that galaxies are moving away from each other at increasing speeds.  If we do not use our imagination, we can only visualize our universe expanding forever until solar systems end up in a Deep Freeze off somewhere by themselves.  But this would describe an open universe that expands forever with no boundaries, which does not seem likely.

What does appear to be more probable than not is that the galaxies are shrinking away from each other at an increasing rate.  Deflation could also cause a “red-shift” effect as the galaxies were shrinking away from each other.  But how did our space-time fabric go from expanding to contracting?  Well, if there were a significant force, perhaps dark energy, that could cause the space-time fabric to reverse direction, then our universe would be a perpetual motion machine, moving back and forth in time.  Remember, I said this required a giant leap of our imagination.  The space-time fabric would be similar to a balloon that inflated and then deflated.

It all depends on your perspective.  From where we sit, time reversal sounds impossible.  But from outside our closed universe, this movement would appear to be a simple expansion and contraction of the universe just like lungs that first fill up with oxygen and then deflate as the oxygen exits the lungs.  Einstein introduced time as the fourth dimension.  So, the dimension of time could easily move up and down as it expands and contracts.  But like I said, from our perspective, it would appear to be going forward in time and then reverse going back to the past.

Even though this sounds a little bit extraordinary, it may be the best theory we can come up without more evidence.  Here’s the bottom line:  there is no other explanation for being able to see an ancient galaxy, no longer sending out light, that was formed about 670 million years after the Big Bang.  The light from the ancient galaxy would have traveled at the speed of light and thus would have passed us by billions of years ago, never to be seen again.  The light from this ancient galaxy which died billions of years ago would have zipped past our field of vision, since expansion, as a general rule, would have propelled us at less than the speed of light.  In other words, how could we possibly see this light through the Hubble telescope unless we had reversed time and were headed back toward that original light?  When we finally see the Big Bang, it may not be a good thing for us.

Of course this sounds like science fiction, but when you consider time as being part of a fabric, it is logical to conclude that the fabric can expand and contract.  Time reversal may be nothing more than moving from expansion to contraction.  And dark energy, which currently is only a mathematical creation, could be a likely candidate to cause this reversal.

Again this is only speculation, but it is possible that dark energy is intertwined in the space-time fabric, so that it can twist one direction until entropy takes over and then it turns around like a rubber band to unwind in the other direction.  And dark energy could be powerful enough to keep this fabric twisting back and forth forever, first expanding and then contracting.  Even though there is little evidence to support this hypothesis, it is logically creative.

You might wonder why we don’t also reverse our aging or go backwards in time from the 21st century to the 20th century.  The answer is because the time reversal occurred billions of years ago.  We probably have been deflating the space-time fabric in a past-future direction for eons.  Basically, you would detect no difference between aging in the present-future or the past-future.

So, why would we ever be able to see the light from ancient galaxies as we moved back in time?  I don’t have a perfect answer, but I believe that we may be able to see light from ancient galaxies and even the Big Bang itself since that light is encased in the time-fabric.  In other words, as the space-time fabric collapses, our universe will be miniaturized so that we will be able to see the light from current galaxies, ancient galaxies, and even the Big Bang, which then may become the Big Crunch.

This theory of expansion and contraction of the time-space fabric would also comport with this being a closed universe, which is most likely the case.  It is not probable that our universe with its mass interconnected by a space-time fabric has no boundary.  Interestingly enough, quantum theory may assist us at this point.  Even though atoms may not appear to have well defined borders, there is an end point where other atoms come together as building blocks for matter.  As strange as the quantum world is, there still probably are boundaries.  And it may well be that the boundaries between the quantum world and the relativity world explain why we cannot reconcile these two worlds.

Even in living things, cells also have membranes at their outer perimeter that contain everything within.  Separations within our universe and between universes, if others exist, may be quite normal.

Our universe is very likely closed, so why would we limit our imagination to our universe just expanding from a Big Bang?  Contraction also must be considered, which may lead to a perpetual Big Bang-Big Crunch theory.  In effect, we could bang and crunch forever.

Fabric of our Universe

The very fabric of our universe is comprised of dark energy.  Even though we don’t know what dark energy is, we know mathematically that it exists, and we believe we know that by definition it is that thread of fabric that holds our universe together.  As it weaves through the universe, it seems to cement dark matter and the visible universe, which is approximately the other 24% of the mass.

We can only speculate as to what causes dark energy to control dark matter and the billions and billions of stars in the universe.  Our speculation is limited substantially by our lack of knowledge about this major force in our universe and our many limitations about what dark matter is and our perspectives of the visible universe.

For example, if we consider the ancient galaxies that no longer exist as part of our visible universe because we can see them, we must ask why.  Why would we consider matter that no longer is in our universe to be part of our visible universe?  Does it still have mass if it only exists in a telescope?  And are all of our ancestors that have evolved from ancient galaxies into old galaxies into today’s galaxies all counted as part of the visible universe, so that we are duplicating our present mass through addition of past mass?

And why can we still see the light from an ancient galaxy whose light went out billions of years ago?  In other words, why didn’t the light from that galaxy zip past us at the speed of light billions of years ago, never to be seen again?  Even if you argue that our universe has been expanding about the speed of light, we should be able to see the entire past or evolution of our universe.  As far as I know, we cannot see the Milky Way galaxy evolving in stages from infancy to its present stage, but we can see ancient galaxies that are no longer with us.  Why is that?

Again, we can only speculate, but we have to get way out of our scientific boxes… so far away from our box that we aren’t even using the scientific tools in that box.  Perhaps, we even turn to a bit of science fiction, which is another way of saying: “We will be using our imagination to propose a solution to this riddle.”

When we consider past events and matter to be part of our visible universe, we do this understanding that everything that we see in a telescope is something that happened in the past.  Even when you examine the moon without the aid of a telescope, you are seeing a past moon.  So, it seems that time must also be considered as being interwoven in our fabric of the universe.

Typically, we consider the past as history.  The dinosaurs have had their day and they no longer are useful in our universe.  But what if we expanded our imaginations to embrace everything that has happened, that is happening, and that will happen into the fabric of our universe?  What if time were not segmented into past, present, and future through the magic of dark energy?  What if these elements of time existed only in our minds as we managed our daily lives, but had a different context in the endless universe?

There are many ways that dark energy and dark matter can twist and turn time just like in a tornado.  Time might be bent or warped so that we could see ancient galaxies.  Time could also be reversed like a spring that pushes out and then bounces back.  Again, only our imagination can carry us to any of these conclusions.  However, these ideas are more plausible than those offered by those cosmologists today, who expect a “Deep Freeze” in our universe’s future.

What is the answer?  I don’t know.  Only God knows and He is not telling you until you reach the other side.  However, I consider the afterlife to be the most exciting of times… to be able to explore the wonders of God’s universe behind the scenes.  It will be the best of times to be able to see how our universe was created.

Looking At Our Past

If you look into a mirror, you will see a younger you.  The image that bounces back to you was you when you were just a tiny bit younger.

Your reflection also will be a fraction of a second older than when you first looked into the mirror.  Time has moved forward in the microsecond that allowed your image to speed to the mirror and return back to your eyes.

These sound like contradictions.  How can your image be a younger you when time has moved into the future?  Can I actually be younger in the future?  Perhaps this is possible depending on our perspective.  If we examine a stationary world using clocks, calendars, and newspapers, we will see each day as another step into the future.  If our frame of reference is expanded to include a moving universe, carrying us to a different time, we might find ourselves actually getting younger rather than older.

What?  How is that possible?  Well, as we travel at increased speeds, time actually slows down.  We age less at these higher accelerations.  Of course, nobody knows what happens as you enter a black hole, but some scientists believe that time stops and then reverses itself.

Most scientists think that the “red shift” is an indicator that our universe is expanding at an increasing speed.  It is more likely that our universe is collapsing at an accelerating speed. The red shift would result from either expansion or contraction (expanding away has the same red shift effect as shrinking away from other objects in the universe, except when gravity rules as it does within galaxies and between close galaxies like the Milky Way and Andromeda), but with entropy in play with expansion, contraction is the more logical conclusion since the speeds are accelerating.

If we are, in fact, shrinking exponentially, we should be able to see the light from ancient galaxies.  As it turns out, we can.  If we were expanding rapidly, we would not be able to see the ancient galaxies because their light would have sped by us at the speed of light billions of years ago.

So as we stare into space, we see ancient galaxies that may include our atoms when they were much younger.  Since they no longer exist, how can we see them if we are moving away from the Big Bang?  It is more likely that we are collapsing back toward the Big Bang and that is why we can see ourselves when we were younger.

Hubble Sees Itself 13.3 Billion Years Ago

Astronomers are using the Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes to look back into our universe’s past… way back.  In fact, Hubble recently could have been looking at itself or, at least, some of the particles that currently exist in the telescope as they were 13.4 billion years ago.

Scientists have identified an ancient galaxy that was exceptionally bright and distant.  The galaxy, now called GN-z11, was formed about 400 million years after the Big Bang at a time when the universe was approximately three percent of its current age.   GN-z11 is the oldest object ever imaged, with its light emitted 13.4 billion years ago.

Cosmologists, in the past, have considered the first billion years after the Big Bang as the “Dark Ages,” when stars and galaxies were not being formed.  However, this new discovery should change that thinking.  It appears that stars and galaxies were being formed early after the Big Bang.   Using the Spitzer infrared telescope, scientists were able to determine that GN-z11 is both bright and large for its age.  This early galaxy had a star mass equaling a billion times that of our sun.  GN-z11 also was forming new stars at a rapid pace.  The results make it clear that star and galaxy formation was very active a relatively short time after the Big Bang.

So, how can Hubble see itself or even ancient galaxies that no longer exist?  In other words, how can Hubble view light images, traveling at the speed of light?  If the light were emitted from GN-z11 around 13.4 billion years ago, wouldn’t it have traveled at a faster rate than the expansion of the universe?

There are only two logical explanations for our viewing the early light:  (1) time has reversed and we are moving back into the past (Big Crunch) or (2) the expansion of space exceeds the speed of light.  The second reason seems to comport with Einstein and other theorists.  But this does not explain the time continuum that Hubble can actually view.  In other words, if the expansion of the space between objects initially exceeded the speed of light and then later slowed down, wouldn’t we only see early views as they caught up with us rather than the entire field of ancient galaxies?

The only reason that remains, although very controversial, is that time has reversed directions, and we are now headed back towards the Big Bang.  Cosmologists argue that the redshift indicates that the universe is expanding; however, it could also prove that the universe is contracting.  In other words, two galaxies that were shrinking would draw away from each other, creating a redshift as between them.

The wavelength of GN-z11 was in the UV end of the spectrum when it formed 13.4 billion years ago.  But today it has redshifted into the infrared portion of the spectrum.  Is this evidence of a time reversal?  If time were reversed, we should be able to see ourselves as we were in the past, which would be stardust.

Fabric of Spacetime

Would we understand our universe better by thinking of it as a web of spacetime that either: (1) bends around itself or (2) expands first into a macroworld and then contracts into a microworld until it is ready to expand again?

Einstein in his theory of relativity discussed space and time or “spacetime” as if it were a single interwoven continuum.  By combining space and time into a single entity and additionally marrying a three-dimensional universe (length, width, height) with a fourth dimension (time), we create Minkowski space.  And even though Einstein was disappointed that he never could unify the supergalactic universe of gravity with the subatomic world of quantum mechanics, this fabric might well extend from the macroworld into the microworld.  The Big Bang probably is the best example of this nexus.  But we probably leave the four dimensions behind when we journey into the subatomic world.  The quantum world could be ruled by dark energy.  We just don’t know.

Many cosmologists propose that the universe is expanding so that billions of years from now, earth will push into a dark corner of the universe with no sun or other stars in the sky, since our corner of the universe will settle into a “Deep Freeze.”  Of course, this makes no sense if you believe we exist in a closed universe.  A closed universe would probably have edges that were elliptical like orbits within galaxies or the orbits within atoms.  A closed universe also portends an infinite spacetime that could bend around an orbit or could expand and contract forever.

So, the first significant question is:  Is our universe closed or open?  Well, if you believe in the Big Bang, and there certainly is sufficient evidence to prove that event, you must argue that the universe is closed.  Why?  Because an event like the Big Bang had an event horizon, similar to the one predicted at the fringe of a black hole.  In other words, there is another side of the black hole and the Big Bang that we can never see.  Spacetime may stop at this point.  This separation creates an edge or event horizon that could not logically exist in an open universe.

If the universe were closed, then the next significant question is: Is perpetuity served by a curved spacetime or by constant expansions and contractions?  Or is it a little of both?

We know that the strength of a gravitational field can slow the passage of time for an object seen by an observer from a distance.  We also know that time speeds up for space travelers and even for those who reach the top of the Empire State Building.  Those of us, who remain on the ground, age slower.  If we were able to travel to a black hole, as we approached the event horizon, we would probably circle the dark matter close to the speed of light; however, observers on earth would think we were barely moving as time slowed down.

In effect, spacetime would be compressed near the event horizon.  And spacetime might even stop at the entrance of a black hole.  Logically, this may be the portal to a microworld where gravity goes wild and turns the reins over to quantum mechanics.  An example on a smaller scale could be when a star expands into a red giant, then contracts into a white dwarf, shrinking into a black hole, and finally explodes into elements that will eventually come back together again through gravity.  The Fusion-Fission cycle sounds like a miniature Big Crunch and Big Bang, doesn’t it?

And how does the curvature of spacetime come into play?  Well, we know that light bends around large objects like black holes.  We also know that objects bend the spacetime fabric.  We don’t know if the bending of spacetime is such that it encloses itself.  For example if we examined the earth from our perspective on earth, we might think it were flat.  But if we were in space, we would see the curvature of the earth.  That same principle may apply to our perspective of the universe.  We might view the universe as flat from where we are, but if we could see a larger segment of the universe, we might see it as being circular.

The temporal and spatial aspects of spacetime may be part of a unified fabric, but they may also operate on different principles.  In other words, space may move back and forth like an accordion, while time may travel both forward to the future and then back to the past.  The spatial movement is more in line with what we can understand using something like a coordinate grid to define where objects are in relation with each other.  The temporal movement is a more abstract manifold defining when events occur.  It would be difficult for us to imagine that time could move backward into the past.  However, there may be proof that it is doing just that.

We are able to see the light from ancient galaxies, dating back to the earliest galaxies in our universe.  How is that possible?  The light from that galaxy would have zipped in front of us billions of years ago.  Since the galaxy hasn’t existed for billions of years, it hasn’t emitting light for eons.  So, how can we view the light today?

Well, you might argue that spacetime is not regulated by the speed limit of light.  And that probably is true, but remember that there are two parts of spacetime.  Space may expand faster than the speed of light, but this probably occurred for only a short period of time after the Big Bang.  Time, on the other hand, may slow down and then reverse itself.  We are very familiar with spatial reversals of the north and south poles and other reversals that are part of the nature of our universe.  But it is difficult to imagine a temporal conversion that starts heading into the future and then backs into the past.  Quite frankly, it is a concept reserved for science fiction.  However, what else can explain the sighting of ancient galaxies?

Furthermore, we know that the older galaxies have a red shift that evidences an increasing acceleration.  Why would they be moving at increased speeds since gravity would have less of an impact on their movement due to entropy?  Well, it might be because of the additional aspect of time moving backwards.

An increased red shift of ancient galaxies viewed from our perspective may be caused by:  (1) a shrinking of the galaxies in a spatial movement away from each other or (2) a reversal of time creating the synergistic appearance of spatial and temporal movement in multiplying effects.  In other words, if you were to measure the distance from A to B and then include time constriction in that equation or consider the repetition of that movement from A to B by first going forward and then backward in time, your red shift might increase.

It is interesting to note that a red shift could be detected if two galaxies were shrinking just the same as if they were expanding away from each other.  The spacetime fabric may have billions of galaxies embedded in this fabric, so that an expansion of the fabric could also expand the galaxies.  The galaxies would be glued to the fabric and thus would not be flying away from each other.  It seems more likely that the galaxies that currently exist are either being drawn to each other by gravity, like the Milky Way and Andromeda, or they are slowly moving away from each other with only a minor red shift.

So what would explain the significant red shift among galaxies that are further away, who either are no longer in existence or would have very little gravitational tug on the other galaxies?  It might be caused by a mixture of temporal and spatial movements.   Since a contraction of the fabric may have the same effect on the galaxies, the galaxies might be shrinking in a proportional manner so that it would not be detected from our perspective.  As the galaxies got smaller, they would pull away from each other which would increase the red shift.

It appears to be more likely that a red shift would be evidence of a contraction rather than an expansion, since a proportional expansion, in theory, would be like slowly filling a polka-dotted balloon.  Those dots, signifying galaxies, would not separate very much as the balloon gradually expanded.  However, the dots would quickly reduce in size as the air came rushing out of the balloon with a time reversal.  When you add in the potential for time reversal, then the case for a shrinking universe in both space and time becomes more attractive and may explain the substantial increase in the red shift as we view ancient galaxies.

If we can look back and see ancient galaxies, why can’t we see the Big Bang.  Well, it is likely that we will never see anything except the results of the Big Bang.  In other words, we should be able to see the smoke from the gun, but not the gun itself.  And we may have stumbled upon this smoke.

There is an anomaly within the universe which is about 1.8 billion light years across and is located around three billion light years away from our solar system.  Currently, this is the largest structure we have found in the universe.  Little energy emanates from this circular area, which contains about 10,000 fewer galaxies than in other areas of the universe.  In effect, this anomaly has about 20 percent less matter inside it.

This cold spot within our universe has perplexed scientists since 2004, when it was discovered as an oddity in the otherwise homogeneous cosmic microwave background radiation.  This cosmic microwave background which can be traced back to the Big Bang is spread evenly throughout our universe except this area, which is about 2.7 degrees K cooler than the average temperature in the universe.  This anomaly could be the smoking gun for the Big Bang.

One other point that should be mentioned is:  There is a proportion of 3:8:24 that seems to consistently act as a foundation of our universe.  Mathematically we know that about 3% of our universe is visible matter, 24% is dark matter, and 72% is dark energy.  This division of matter and energy in the universe is a ratio of 3:8:24.  This same proportion applies to hydrogen, helium, and all other elements.  This could be a coincidence, but it is not likely.

But what about the missing 1%?  Our formula only accounts for 99% of the universe.  What accounts for the other 1%?  I can only guess, but it could be the ignition or the unknown force that keeps the universe constantly moving from expansion to contraction and back again.

And how does this apply to the closed universe?  Well, we know that neither matter nor energy is created or destroyed in this universe.  The proportionate division makes sense in a closed universe that is balanced for the most part, but needs that 1% to reverse the polarity so that our universe is a perpetual time and recycling machine.

Acceleration of Distant Galaxies

Scientists have observed that objects three times more distant are accelerating three times faster than nearby galaxies.  And this proportional increase seems to continue the further out we examine galaxies.  In other words, galaxies six times further out would have speeds six times more than our acceleration.

So what is causing the increased acceleration?  Well, if you believe only in the inflation theory which ends in a Deep Freeze, then you might argue that the galaxies near us are slowing down to speeds less than those of the past.  This would mean that the universe would eventually come to an end with the stars dying out and our universe coming to a halt.

However, the constant multiplications with the distance would quickly run past the speed of light.  Perhaps a doubling would be under that speed limit, but a tripling would be suspect and four and five times our acceleration speed would most likely exceed 186,000 miles per second.   There should be a point of diminishing returns on this increased acceleration, so that the multiplication would start slowing down somewhere in deep space, but this has not been observed.  The increased speeds through straight-line multiplication do not make sense.

But the inflation theory also makes no sense in a universe that has orbits in both the macro and micro world.  This inflation theory of entropy, if decreasing in so many multiples from early accelerations, would have slowed us down to nothing.  The stars would have already exhausted their hydrogen supply.  We would be in the Deep Freeze.  And this is not the case.

So what else might be causing this anomaly of rapid acceleration, going back in time?  If the space-time fabric could both expand and then contract, there would be no limitation by the speed of light because this speed limit only applies to objects.  And if we are now in a contraction stage, then from our perspective, distant galaxies might appear to be multiplying the speeds when it is really a duplication of speeds.  In other words, as the near galaxies contracted backwards, they would only have normal acceleration.  But the distant galaxies that were also contracting back in time would have layers of acceleration from the new acceleration added on to the past accelerations.

Further, as we viewed more distant galaxies, the speeds of objects measured in the space-time fabric could also be layered with multiple accelerations which exceeded the speed of light.  So that the six times could actually be caused by a shrinking space-time fabric, carrying the galaxies back towards the Big Bang.  Of course, these are theories that must be challenged by hard facts, but right now that is all we have.

The acceleration may stop where the space-time fabric reversed itself.  The multiplication of accelerations would not continue into the point where the ancient galaxies were in a space-time fabric that was expanding.  It would probably only go back to the point when the space-time fabric was shrinking.  It will be interesting to examine the multiplications that we discover in the future.

Expansion of Universe?

Why do scientists get so entrenched in the expansion of the universe theory?  Since Edwin Hubble discovered the red shift which led to the argument that our universe is expanding, scientists have gotten into the expansion rut and can’t seem to entertain other possibilities.

There are some practical problems with the expansion theory.  First of all, it does not comport with the design of the universe, which is in orbits or some other forms that permit an infinite movement.  Our universe recycles and does not run out of gas.  The expansion theory starts with the Big Bang and ends with the Big Freeze with all the stars eventually consuming all the hydrogen and everything coming to an end in the dark somewhere in deep space.  There is nothing in our universe that shares this design.

It is more likely that we either have a universe that is much larger than we can even imagine, so that we cannot see the slight curvature in the circular universe.  Our current understanding of our universe may be similar to how early man perceived our earth as being flat.

We could also have an alternating pattern between the Big Bang and the Big Crunch or a space-time fabric that moved back and forth between present-future to past-future.  Or we could speculate that after a period of expansion, then we switched back to a period of contraction.  These theories are better suited for the patterns that we see in our universe.

There also are practical problems with the expansion theory.  How could we view the light from ancient galaxies, which no longer exist, since that light would have traveled faster than our expansion?  In other words, how could we see a light that streaked into the future past us billions of light years ago?  Further, how could a universe that is 100 billion light years wide have expanded into this depth of field within 13.8 billion years?

Observations have revealed that objects three times more distant are moving three times faster relative to nearby galaxies, and the farther we look into space, the faster the galaxies are moving.  In fact, they may surpass the speed of light at these vast distances. However, the speed of light is the universal speed limit. So how can this be?

Well, the speed of light is the fastest that objects can travel.  This restriction does not apply to space and time.  For example, in the period after the Big Bang, this early expansion probably exceeded the speed of light.  Also, our view back into space, which is also back in time, may be distorted by time itself, which is not restricted by the speed limits.

It is also possible that the actual universe extends much farther than we can comprehend.  The observable universe may be about 50 billion light years in all directions, but the actual universe may be infinitely larger than that.  This might be a good argument for our universe actually being in a never-ending gargantuan orbit with our view only reaching the horizon embracing a small piece of the universe.

But back to the question of how a universe that is about 100 billion light years wide could be formed in only 13.8 billion years?  Well, as we said, some of that early expansion could have been faster than the speed of light, but that probably does not explain everything.  Could that 100 billion light years, much of which is in the past, be in a space-time fabric that can move faster than the speed of light?  And if some of that time reversed from present-future to past-future, would we be able to detect the reversal?  Would it all appear the same to us from our perspective?

I can only ask questions, but scientists who are so stuck in the expansion theory do not want to hear questions.  That is unfortunate because questions lead to better answers and, in this case, better theories.

Edge of the Universe with God on the Other Side

I have written many articles on why our universe is most likely closed.  So, if it were closed, where is the boundary?  Well, the universe could have an oval orbit like many objects, large and small, but let’s be more adventurous.  Perhaps, we should think like Einstein and examine a four-dimensional universe.

When you add the fourth dimension, time, you need to be creative since the edge of our universe might be much more different than what you would expect in a three-dimensional object.  So, what if the boundary were flexible like a time bubble that could expand and contract?  What if the edge were not so much a three-dimensional location, but instead a moment in time?

Let’s speculate.  What if the Big Bang were nothing more than the entry point for all the mass and energy, including high-energy neutrinos?  Maybe after several million years, the Big Bang event, which probably was a fireball, started to cool down.  The lights went out.  Quite possibly, there were about 100 million years of no activity that was visible.

The Dark Ages of our universe more than likely saw a reversal from expansion to contraction.  The first stars and ancient galaxies probably were not formed until the hydrogen gases were compacted to the point that the heat was so intense that they ignited, much like stars are created today.

The majority of scientists believe that the universe is expanding at an increasing rate.  I suppose that this is possible if dark energy were drawing the visible matter out into infinity, but that sounds like an open universe with no boundaries.  If you believe our universe is closed, the only theory that makes any sense is that the universe is collapsing at an increasing speed as it races back toward its origin.

Why is our universe closed?  Everything that we know in our universe has design.  Even activities that appear to be chaotic have a reason and lead to a purpose.  God is the Designer.  As an example, electrons, planets, and galaxies move in closed orbits.  God’s world moves in cycles.  Since we cannot see the other side of the Big Bang, there must be a boundary that hides it.  The galaxies in the universe seem to be interconnected within an oval egg shell that expands and contracts over time.  The law of conservation of matter and energy states that matter and energy are neither created nor destroyed in our universe.  This matter and energy that remains the same total amount forever must be encased by a boundary for this theory to be true.

An open universe with only expansion that continues into a Deep Freeze with all matter reaching a final destination that has no purpose does not fit within God’s design.  An open universe theory supports a chaotic, purposeless system that is advocated by atheists.  Large stars would burn out, leaving only smaller stars to burn out, until all the hydrogen was used.  Scientists believe that the Deep Freeze will be the end of our universe.  But it serves no purpose.  It does not fit within God’s ultimate design for the universe.  God did not design a dying universe.

So, if time created the boundary for our universe, which can alternate between expansion and contraction, does that mean that time can go backwards?  It might from our perspective.  In other words, from our position on earth, a reversal might appear to be headed back in time to the ancient galaxies and the Big Bang event.  But if we were outside the time bubble, we might simply view our bubble getting very small as the compaction increased into the Big Crunch.

What in the universe could be driving this time machine, alternating between expansion and contraction?  Well, since our visible universe is only about 3% of the universe, dark matter and dark energy are the likely forces.  God probably designed a universe that could exist for an infinite amount of time.  This makes sense if you consider that time could be a closed fourth dimension perpetually expanding and shrinking or from our perspective, going forward and then backward in time.  Frankly, whether we are moving toward a Big Bang or Big Crunch may not matter since it could lead to the same result, so whether time is going forward or backward may not matter either.

God banished Adam and Eve from his kingdom probably into a universe without end like ours.  The only way to return to God might be to leave this universe.  There appear to be three heavens or judgments that must be passed in order to reach this goal.  2 Corinthians 12:2.  The first heaven, which has been described as being on earth, should be the easiest to obtain through belief and faith.  But the other two might be increasingly difficult.  The first death probably separates believers from nonbelievers based on God’s grace.  The second death is mentioned in the Bible when we are judged based on our works.  Revelation 20:13-14.  If we fail this test, we are cast into the lake of fire.  Revelation 20:15.

As Jesus said, “Because straight is the gate, and narrow is the way, which leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it.”  Matthew 7:14.  Revelation indicates that only 144,000 will be redeemed from earth.  Revelation 14:3.  The fate of Adam and Eve or humankind probably cannot be reversed without a superhuman effort that counters the Devil’s deceit in the second heaven.  Certainly, turning everything over to God should create the necessary unification with God to enter the third heaven, God’s kingdom.  But anything outside the Bible is just guesswork.  We will not know for certain until we die, but being prepared for anything is not a bad idea.

Even though this article is highly speculative, it is always interesting to ask the question:  why can Hubble see the ancient galaxies?  If the light from that ancient object, which no longer exists, started its race in a straight line toward Hubble about 13 billion years ago wouldn’t it have passed us?  If you believe we have been constantly expanding since the Big Bang at less than the speed of light, how could we see any ancient light?

I suppose you could argue that the universe is curved so that the light from ancient galaxies has raced around and is coming back for a second viewing.  But it seems more likely from our perspective that we are going back in time towards not only ancient light, but also the Big Bang itself.

Again, this is only a somewhat edgy theory, but it is possible that our universe is a time machine that can alternate between a Big Bang and a Big Crunch forever.  In that sense, we are in an infinite prison of our own sinful devise.  God and Jesus have shown us a way out, but how many will actually leave this universe?

Edge of the Universe

I have written many articles on why our universe is most likely closed.  So, if it were closed, where is the boundary?  Well, the universe could have an oval orbit like many objects, large and small, but let’s be more adventurous.  Perhaps, we should think like Einstein and examine a four-dimensional universe.

When you add the fourth dimension, time, you need to be creative since the edge of our universe might be much more different than what you would expect in a three-dimensional object.  So, what if the boundary were flexible like a time bubble that could expand and contract?  What if the edge were not so much a three-dimensional location, but instead a moment in time?

Let’s speculate.  What if the Big Bang were nothing more than the entry point for all the mass and energy?  Maybe after several million years, the Big Bang event, which probably was a fireball, started to cool down.  The lights went out.  Quite possibly, there were about 100 million years of no activity that was visible.

The Dark Ages of our universe more than likely saw a reversal from expansion to contraction.  The first stars and ancient galaxies probably were not formed until the hydrogen gases were compacted to the point that the heat was so intense that they ignited, much like stars are created today.

A majority of scientists believe that the universe is expanding at an increasing rate.  I suppose that this is possible if dark energy were drawing the visible matter out into infinity, but that requires an open universe with no boundaries.  If you believe our universe is closed, the only theory that makes sense is that the universe is collapsing at an increasing speed as it races back toward its origin.

Why is our universe closed?  Everything that we know in our universe has design.  Even activities that appear to be chaotic have a reason and lead to a purpose.  God is the Designer.  As an example, electrons, planets, and galaxies move in closed orbits.  God’s world moves in cycles.  Since we cannot see the other side of the Big Bang, there must be a boundary that hides it.  The galaxies in the universe seem to be interconnected within an oval egg shell that expands and contracts over time.  The law of conservation of matter and energy states that matter and energy is neither created nor destroyed in our universe.  This matter and energy that remains the same total amount forever must be encased by a boundary for this theory to be true.

An open universe with only expansion that continues into a Deep Freeze with all matter reaching a final destination that has no purpose does not fit within God’s design.  An open universe theory supports a chaotic, purposeless system that is advocated by atheists.  Large stars would burn out, leaving only smaller stars to burn out, until all the hydrogen was used.  Scientists believe that the Deep Freeze will be the end of our universe.  But it serves no purpose.  It does not fit within God’s ultimate design for the universe.  God did not design a dying universe.

So, if time created the boundary for our universe, which can alternate between expansion and contraction, does that mean that time can go backwards?  It might from our perspective.  In other words, from our position on earth, a reversal might appear to be headed back in time to the ancient galaxies and the Big Bang event.  But if we were outside the time bubble, we might simply view our bubble getting very small as the compaction increased into the Big Crunch.

What in the universe could be driving this time machine, alternating between expansion and contraction?  Well, since our visible universe is only about 3% of the universe, dark matter and dark energy are the likely forces.

Even though this is highly speculative, it is always interesting to ask the question:  why can Hubble see the ancient galaxies?  If the light from that ancient object, which no longer exists, started its race in a straight line toward Hubble about 13 billion yeas ago wouldn’t it have passed us?  If you believe we have been constantly expanding since the Big Bang at less than the speed of light, how could we see any ancient light?

I suppose you could argue that the universe is curved so that the light from ancient galaxies has raced around and is coming back for a second viewing.  But it seems more likely, from our perspective, that we are going back in time towards not only ancient light, but also the Big Bang itself.

Again, this is only a somewhat edgy theory, but it is possible that our universe is a time machine that can alternate between a Big Bang and a Big Crunch forever.

Moving Forward to the Past

If an astronaut could travel in space near the speed of light and he traveled to the closest star from our sun, which would be Proxima Centauri about 4.24 light years away, it would take the astronaut about 8.48 years to make the round trip.  When the astronaut returned, he would find that everybody had aged substantially.  In effect, he would have gone back in time by traveling at a faster speed than everybody that remained on earth.  From his wife’s perspective, he would have moved forward to the past.  While from his perspective, he would have come back to the future.

So, what does this tell us about movement after the early expansion of the Big Bang?  If all the matter were moving equally near the speed of light, then the relative time would remain the same as to each other.  Even though the matter might be moving back in time, everything would be moving back in time at an equal rate, so it would appear to be the same.

However, we know by the red shift effect that the stars and galaxies in the universe are not staying at the same speed.  In fact, their speed is increasing as they distance themselves from each other.  That can be either because they are shrinking away from each other or because they are expanding away from each other.

Which is more likely?  Well, from our perspective on earth, it seems to be more probable that the rapid acceleration of matter in the universe is causing it to be younger than we are on earth.  In effect, the faster the stars distance themselves from us, the farther back in time they go from us.  Time appears to reverse itself because of the tremendous speeds of the stars and galaxies as they shrink away from each other.

That astronaut who traveled to Proxima Centauri returned to an earth that had moved forward in time, while time had slowed down for him.  His wife became much older during his trip.  From the perspective of his wife, time had reversed itself for her husband astronaut.  Time really did not reverse itself, but it seemed that way through the wife’s eyes.

Thus, from our point of view on earth, time may appear to be reversing itself for all the other objects in the universe.  And it is more logical that from earth’s perspective, time would be going backwards for the rest of the universe.  This would be a shrinking of time for the rest of the universe that might comport with a compaction of matter in the universe.  Since scientists refer to a space-time fabric in the universe, it would make sense that the entire fabric with mass intertwined in its web is collapsing.