Hubble Sees Itself 13.3 Billion Years Ago

Astronomers are using the Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes to look back into our universe’s past… way back.  In fact, Hubble recently could have been looking at itself or, at least, some of the particles that currently exist in the telescope as they were 13.4 billion years ago.

Scientists have identified an ancient galaxy that was exceptionally bright and distant.  The galaxy, now called GN-z11, was formed about 400 million years after the Big Bang at a time when the universe was approximately three percent of its current age.   GN-z11 is the oldest object ever imaged, with its light emitted 13.4 billion years ago.

Cosmologists, in the past, have considered the first billion years after the Big Bang as the “Dark Ages,” when stars and galaxies were not being formed.  However, this new discovery should change that thinking.  It appears that stars and galaxies were being formed early after the Big Bang.   Using the Spitzer infrared telescope, scientists were able to determine that GN-z11 is both bright and large for its age.  This early galaxy had a star mass equaling a billion times that of our sun.  GN-z11 also was forming new stars at a rapid pace.  The results make it clear that star and galaxy formation was very active a relatively short time after the Big Bang.

So, how can Hubble see itself or even ancient galaxies that no longer exist?  In other words, how can Hubble view light images, traveling at the speed of light?  If the light were emitted from GN-z11 around 13.4 billion years ago, wouldn’t it have traveled at a faster rate than the expansion of the universe?

There are only two logical explanations for our viewing the early light:  (1) time has reversed and we are moving back into the past (Big Crunch) or (2) the expansion of space exceeds the speed of light.  The second reason seems to comport with Einstein and other theorists.  But this does not explain the time continuum that Hubble can actually view.  In other words, if the expansion of the space between objects initially exceeded the speed of light and then later slowed down, wouldn’t we only see early views as they caught up with us rather than the entire field of ancient galaxies?

The only reason that remains, although very controversial, is that time has reversed directions, and we are now headed back towards the Big Bang.  Cosmologists argue that the redshift indicates that the universe is expanding; however, it could also prove that the universe is contracting.  In other words, two galaxies that were shrinking would draw away from each other, creating a redshift as between them.

The wavelength of GN-z11 was in the UV end of the spectrum when it formed 13.4 billion years ago.  But today it has redshifted into the infrared portion of the spectrum.  Is this evidence of a time reversal?  If time were reversed, we should be able to see ourselves as we were in the past, which would be stardust.

Limitation of Imagination

We all have congratulated others on being very creative.  We know of artists, musicians, or even scientists like Einstein, who were creative geniuses.  Their imagination seemed to know no bounds, yet it did.  Their limitations were primarily based on their knowledge.  The more we know, the greater our imaginations become.

Unfortunately, we know very little about ourselves and where we live: our solar system, our galaxy, and certainly our universe.  We are still struggling to understand the earth and the depths of the ocean.  We don’t know how the sun and its cycles are impacting our weather patterns, so we blame it on global warming.

We don’t know where our solar system ends.  We see only about 10% of our universe in the form of planets and moons, so we know very little about the Kuiper Belt and the Oort Cloud.  And we also know very little about the billions of galaxies with their billions of stars, yet this is only about 4% of our total universe.  The other 96% is called dark matter and dark energy, which we know practically nothing about.  And don’t even mention quantum mechanics.

So with so little information, our imaginations are extremely limited.  When cosmologists state that they believe our universe will continue accelerating into a Deep Freeze, I counter with the fact that their imaginations are in a deep freeze.  The truth is that we will never know how the universe works because we are limited on our facts and imagination.  Only God knows and He is not showing His creative hand… at least while we are alive.

I give cosmologists a good deal of credit for coming up with the idea about Phase Changes as a possibility for the end of our universe; however, this idea is a spinoff of what we know about the different phases of water:  liquid, solid, and gas.  Again, our imagination is fairly limited to what we know.

For example, scientists have no idea what dark energy is, so let’s utilize our imagination and see what we predict.  Dark energy may be a force that is repelling the rest of the universe and thus causing an acceleration of separation between galaxies.  But this is based on our understanding of magnetism when like charges repel each other.  If you were to question cosmologists about dark energy, they would have to tell you that they have no idea what it is and their imaginations are stymied.

Even when we let our imagination go to areas that are declared to be science fiction, it is still based on what we know.  For example, if I were to say that the red color that we expect to see as a property enters the event horizon of a black hole, could be the same as the red shift that Hubble discovered decades ago.  Then if I were to extrapolate the reversal of time at the event horizon with a reversal of time with Hubble’s red shift, my imagination is still restricted to facts that we know or think that we know.

This is an interesting analogy though since most cosmologists believe that the red shift indicates that the galaxies are moving away from each other at increasing speeds.  My theory is that the galaxies are stuck in a time-space fabric that is shrinking at accelerating speeds.  But again, my imagination is limited just as much as others on earth.

Can we create something different from what we know?  Well, we can imagine new combinations of what we know.  For example, we might speculate that life on a planet, which is light years away, has a creature with ten legs and five eyes, but we are still working with legs and eyes.  We can even paint an unrecognizable animal, but we will borrow from things that we know to create this beast.

So, clearly we are not even close to the Creator, our God.  In order to be with God, we must unify with Him.  We must trust Him and defer to His omniscience.  Only God could create the universe from nothing.  Scientists do not have a clue.

Gravitational Waves

Scientists have made the first direct observations of gravitational waves, which are ripples in the fabric of space-time predicted by Albert Einstein.  It is similar to ripples caused by a rock thrown in a pond, but the difference is that these may go on forever through the space-time fabric.  The hero is LIGO, which is an acronym for Laser Inteferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory.  LIGO picked up gravitational waves created by two merging black holes, which occurred about 1.3 million years ago.  Yet, we can still hear them, rippling through the fabric.

Wow!  So, what does all this mean?  Well, it may herald a future in astronomy where we can finally learn more about the dark side of our universe.  LIGO may pick up gravitational waves caused by both dark matter and dark energy.  Perhaps we will detect waves from the Big Bang.  Only time will tell, but at a minimum astronomers will be able to study other black holes.

LIGO was designed to search for compact binary objects such as pairs of neutron stars or black holes, locked into the spiraling dance of death.  In 1993, Joseph Taylor and Russell Hulse won the Nobel Prize in physics after showing that binary neutron stars radiated gravitational energy.  This was the precursor or indirect proof of gravitational waves.

Patrick Brady, a professor at the University of Wisconsin who worked on LIGO explained the project:  “LIGO senses those last few minutes or seconds of the waves generated just before the objects crash into one another.”  He said that LIGO begins to hear the impending collision once the orbits tighten to about five times per second.  At that point, the gravitational waves reach a frequency of 10 hertz, or cycles per second, the low end of its range.  And in the few minutes left in their lives, the tightening spiral causes both the frequency and strength of the gravitational waves to increase.  Brady concluded, “That means they sweep right through the most sensitive band of the LIGO instruments.”

Scientists are in the early stages of developing supermassive LIGOs to find supermassive black holes in the center of galaxies.  Just like light giving off different frequencies, the gravitational waves also give us different frequencies.  Thus, we will need to develop supersensitive instruments that can detect unique chirps in a field of crickets.  Currently, there are only two detectors online (LIGO and Virgo, the European Gravitational Observatory’s primary instrument in Italy), but researchers will create more and improve them incrementally.  They will broaden the range of detectable waves and pinpoint sources of waves.  Italy’s Advanced Virgo instrument will come online in the fall of 2016.  Others will follow.

In December, the European Space Agency launched the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Pathfinder into orbit 932,000 miles from Earth.  Even though, Pathfinder will not be searching for gravitational waves, it will prove that a hypersensitive, space-based wave detector is possible to launch into space.  Space will be able to filter out the static and noise detected with earth-based instruments.  Martin Hewisson, LISA Pathfinder scientists said, “We want to make this the quietest place in the solar system.  If LISA is successful, scientists can build a gravitational wave detector called eLISA, which will consist of three spacecraft in an equilateral triangle connected by laser arms.  This detector will pick up gravitational waves generated by binary supermassive black holes, ultra-compact binaries, and small black holes falling into supermassive black holes.

Different events produce gravitational waves of different frequencies. The above graph compares those sources against operating and future detectors.  This shows the potential for future astronomers being able to detect not only where black holes are located in our universe, but perhaps even locating the Big Bang.

But even before we have eLISA, new ground-based gravitational wave detectors should turn on within a few years.  These new instruments will allow astrophysicists to triangulate the positions of waves and hone in on their sources.  An upgraded version of Virgo will begin observations in the fall of 2016 in conjunction with LIGO.  Advanced Virgo’s improvements will increase its sensitivity ten times.  This will allow researchers to probe a volume of space thousands of times larger than before.  Virgo could pick up a gravitational wave signal once per month, or even per week, with its enhancements.  LIGO India is a proposed detector that would serve as the third in the LIGO family and could be operational by 2022.  In Japan, crews have blasted and excavated tunnels in the abandoned Kamioka mine to make way for the Kamioka Gravitational Wave Detector (KAGRA).  KAGRA is expected to detect signals from neutron star mergers every one or two months once it is fully operational.

The Einstein Telescope represents a third-generation detector that is in the design phase.  It would be hundreds of times more sensitive than the instruments we have now.  This telescope will be buried underground to reduce noise.  It will form a full triangle like eLISA and will have three detectors: two for low-frequency signals and one to detect high frequencies.

A new era in astronomy is set to begin based on a heightened sense of listening.  So, what is the gravity of this new discovery?  Well, certainly it gives us a new tool for detecting dark matter through sound, which otherwise cannot be detected with sight.  But more importantly, it gives us a basis for using our imagination to carry beyond the simplistic theory of the Big Bang and expansion until everything freezes in the icy depths of space.  Now, we know that Einstein got it exactly right and that the space-time fabric carries throughout the universe.  This fabric is so connected that gravitational waves created over a billion years ago still vibrate across the fabric.

What does all this mean?  Well, I’m not certain, but I think it means that everything in our universe, including time and the Big Bang are still in this fabric.  That may mean that past, present, and future are just nouns that help us imagine where we are in that fabric.  And whether this fabric encloses on itself so that time is continuous or whether this fabric is part of a perpetual time machine that expands and contracts, it really does not matter.  Because the primary point is that the universe is all interconnected in one fabric.  Solar systems are connected to galaxies and galaxies are connected together, so that our universe is one entity.  We don’t know if there are other universes which are also connected like cells in an organism, but we know that we are connected in our universe.

This helps explain a lot of mysteries in our universe.  Now, we know why the stars orbiting on the outside of the Milky Way galaxy are traveling at the same speed as the stars on the interior.  They are all connected in the space-time fabric.  Typically, you would expect the exterior stars in a galaxy to slow down as they get farther away from the center, which probably houses a supermassive black hole.  But if they are in the same fabric as those stars located closer to the center, the distance from the supermassive black hole will not change their speeds.

What else?  Well, this may explain why we can see the galaxy EGS8p7, located 13.2 billion light years away from earth.  This galaxy, the farthest we have seen as of today, was formed about 600 million years after the Big Bang.  So since this ancient galaxy no longer exists, how can we still see the light that traveled 13.2 billion years to reach us?  Traveling at the speed of light, which is faster than any speed our earth can obtain, the light from EGS8p7 would have zipped past us billions of years ago, never to be seen again.  However, if you analyze EGS8p7 as being forever locked into the space-time fabric, then we may someday even discover the Big Bang, also embedded in the same fabric.  And the mystery about why we can still see or hear evidence of ancient galaxies is solved by the space-time fabric, which embraces everything that ever happened or ever will happen in our universe.  However, it makes for a strong case that we currently are in a contraction phase since we can see ancient galaxies just as if we were moving back in time.

Now we can start examining our universe as if it were one entity so that if we detect contraction where we are, the entire fabric of the universe is contracting.  And our universe must be closed by virtue of the fact that a fabric has an end.  The only questions remaining are:  (1) is our universe enclosed in a huge orbit and (2) does it both expand and contract?

It seems highly likely that our universe is enclosed in some type of geometrical figure.  If a system is closed, it must have edges.  And if it has edges, these edges must form some type of design that connects.  The second question is the tougher one.  Scientists believe that the universe has been expanding since the Big Bang and many cosmologists think that it will end in a Deep Freeze.  This theory seems ridiculous to me.

Our universe is most likely designed to last forever in a perpetual motion mechanism.  The red shift discovered by Edwin Hubble supports the theory of expansion.  However, the red shift may also support the theory of contraction.  For example if dark energy were to cause expansion and dark matter were to cause contraction of our visible universe, the galaxies would appear to be pulling away from each other in either case. In other words, the dark energy would propel galaxies away from each other, while the dark matter would cause galaxies to contract, shrinking uniformly.  Both expansion in distance and shrinking in size will cause a red shift.

If there were an original expansion of the fabric, then there should also be a contraction if you believe that our universe is a perpetual time machine.  This makes sense to me because if the past and future are in the same fabric, then going backwards in time is not only possible, but is likely.  From our perspective, we may go back to the Big Bang, but we may call it the Big Crunch.

Expansion of Universe?

Why do scientists get so entrenched in the expansion of the universe theory?  Since Edwin Hubble discovered the red shift which led to the argument that our universe is expanding, scientists have gotten into the expansion rut and can’t seem to entertain other possibilities.

There are some practical problems with the expansion theory.  First of all, it does not comport with the design of the universe, which is in orbits or some other forms that permit an infinite movement.  Our universe recycles and does not run out of gas.  The expansion theory starts with the Big Bang and ends with the Big Freeze with all the stars eventually consuming all the hydrogen and everything coming to an end in the dark somewhere in deep space.  There is nothing in our universe that shares this design.

It is more likely that we either have a universe that is much larger than we can even imagine, so that we cannot see the slight curvature in the circular universe.  Our current understanding of our universe may be similar to how early man perceived our earth as being flat.

We could also have an alternating pattern between the Big Bang and the Big Crunch or a space-time fabric that moved back and forth between present-future to past-future.  Or we could speculate that after a period of expansion, then we switched back to a period of contraction.  These theories are better suited for the patterns that we see in our universe.

There also are practical problems with the expansion theory.  How could we view the light from ancient galaxies, which no longer exist, since that light would have traveled faster than our expansion?  In other words, how could we see a light that streaked into the future past us billions of light years ago?  Further, how could a universe that is 100 billion light years wide have expanded into this depth of field within 13.8 billion years?

Observations have revealed that objects three times more distant are moving three times faster relative to nearby galaxies, and the farther we look into space, the faster the galaxies are moving.  In fact, they may surpass the speed of light at these vast distances. However, the speed of light is the universal speed limit. So how can this be?

Well, the speed of light is the fastest that objects can travel.  This restriction does not apply to space and time.  For example, in the period after the Big Bang, this early expansion probably exceeded the speed of light.  Also, our view back into space, which is also back in time, may be distorted by time itself, which is not restricted by the speed limits.

It is also possible that the actual universe extends much farther than we can comprehend.  The observable universe may be about 50 billion light years in all directions, but the actual universe may be infinitely larger than that.  This might be a good argument for our universe actually being in a never-ending gargantuan orbit with our view only reaching the horizon embracing a small piece of the universe.

But back to the question of how a universe that is about 100 billion light years wide could be formed in only 13.8 billion years?  Well, as we said, some of that early expansion could have been faster than the speed of light, but that probably does not explain everything.  Could that 100 billion light years, much of which is in the past, be in a space-time fabric that can move faster than the speed of light?  And if some of that time reversed from present-future to past-future, would we be able to detect the reversal?  Would it all appear the same to us from our perspective?

I can only ask questions, but scientists who are so stuck in the expansion theory do not want to hear questions.  That is unfortunate because questions lead to better answers and, in this case, better theories.

Time Reversal

A time reversal initially seems very improbable to us.  How could time reverse itself, going from present-future to past-future?  It seems like something you would find in a science fiction novel.  Yet, it not only is possible, but it also may be probable.

It depends on your perspective.  From where we sit, it sounds impossible.  But from outside our closed universe, this movement would appear to be a simple expansion and contraction of the universe just like lungs that first fill up with oxygen and then deflate as the oxygen exits the lungs.  Einstein introduced time as the fourth dimension.  So, the dimension of time could easily move up and down as it expands and contracts.  But like I said, from our perspective, it would appear to be going forward in time and then reverse going back to the past.

The reason why this is probable is because our universe is unlikely to be headed toward a dead-end, sometimes called the Deep Freeze when all matter and energy comes to a halt as it expands so far away from all other matter and energy that it will sit motionless in a deep, dark environment with no sunlight since all the hydrogen will be consumed.  But our universe is based on cycles and orbits and recycling, so there may be no end to our universe.

Such an endless universe could have either of two main forces driving it:  (1) a closed universe stretching out into an orbit that was beyond our sight lines or (2) a closed universe that alternated between a Big Bang (expansion) and a Big Crunch (contraction).  I call this the “Incredible Shrinking Universe.”  In this second scenario, the universe would be a four dimensional entity that would move in and out like an accordion, first expanding and then contracting.  If time were the fourth dimension, it could be framed less by a location than by a moment in time.  Space-time could both extend into the future and then collapse into the future.

The thing that really makes us think about this possibility is when the Hubble telescope views ancient galaxies that are no longer sending out light, we should not see them if we have been expanding at a speed slower than the speed of light.  Of the two forces mentioned above, if our universe were a huge orbit, then the light from the ancient galaxies would have to lap around the universe again for us to see them.  However, the second theory works better because we could see the ancient galaxies if we were moving back in time towards the Big Bang.

You might wonder why we don’t also reverse our aging or go backwards in time from the 21st century to the 20th century.  The answer is because the time reversal occurred billions of years ago.  We have been deflating the space-time fabric in a past-future direction for eons.  Basically, you would detect no difference between aging in the present-future or the past-future.

So, why would we be able to see the light from ancient galaxies as we moved back in time?  I don’t have a perfect answer, but I believe that we may be able to see light from ancient galaxies and even the Big Bang itself since it existed before the time reversal.  In other words, as the space-time fabric collapses, it will move all the way back to the Big Bang, which becomes the Big Crunch.  We should be able to see ancient galaxies as we cross the reversal zone and literally go back in time to our origins.  This may tell us that we have already crossed that reversal line and will eventually see the Big Bang itself.

Is Our Universe Alive?

If you examine the interconnected galaxies within our universe, it looks like everything fits together neatly within an oval shell, perhaps held together by dark matter and dark energy.  If we attribute any life to this entity, it will have to be living inside a closed universe with borders.  Because if we have an open universe, headed toward the Big Freeze when stars run out of hydrogen and the lights go out, then there can be no life.

When everything within our universe is running in cycles and orbits, it would be strange indeed if the universe itself did not also have a cycle.  We can only speculate on the edges of this closed universe, but it may be restricted by time itself with our universe expanding and contracting as if moving forward in time and then backwards in time, creating a perpetual time and motion machine.

So, assuming that we live in a closed universe, is it alive?  Our universe appears to be a large cell with filaments stretching out and connecting the billions and billions of galaxies into superclusters and then into a universal fabric.  And there is a life cycle for stars and galaxies as they are born, grow, and die.  The universe could have a similar cycle moving back and forth between the Big Bang (birth) and the Big Crunch (death).  Of course this cycle may never stop.  And the law of conservation of matter and energy seems to prove this.  Even though matter and energy may be transformed to something else, these changes will go on for infinity since the total matter and energy within our universe can neither be created nor destroyed.

So, does the universe fit within any of the seven life processes?

(1) Movement.  Our universe may be like an accordion, moving back and forth as it expands and then contracts.  Or it may be moving in an orbit that is so huge, we cannot see the curvature.  But it certainly is moving as reflected by Hubble’s discovery of the red shift.  And it is increasing in speed.

(2) Respiration.  The universe may not have lungs like humans, but it does have a great variety of chemical reactions to produce energy, which most scientists would admit goes a long way to proving respiration.

(3) Sensitivity.  The universe seems to adapt as it apparently detects changes in the environment.  As an example, there is a balancing force so that if matter, like hydrogen, is expended through fusion within the stars; there is counterbalancing activity as energy is converted back to hydrogen, probably though fission of other elements in a supernova.

(4) Growth.  The universe has expanded from a tiny particle to the billions and billions of galaxies that we see today.

(5) Reproductive.  The universe cannot reproduce through sexual activity, but it may be able to pass along genetic information like DNA to all its plants and animals.  The universal DNA may be the reproductive aspect for all life within the universe.

(6) Excretion.  Even though matter and energy cannot be destroyed within the confines of the universe, it can be transformed into something else that is not a waste product.  As an example, when we die, our bodies decompose and the elements and energy from that body become valuable as they are recycled.

(7) Nutrition.  The universe does not eat and drink like we do, but it does convert matter into energy, which is the purpose of nutrition.  Fusion is an example of the universe converting matter into energy.

After examining these seven life processes, it seems possible, if not probable, that the universe is indeed alive and well.  But don’t ask me if it is an animal or a plant.  Quite frankly, it may be unicellular like bacteria.  But I’m comfortable right now just saying that our universe is more likely alive than not. 

Edge of the Universe with God on the Other Side

I have written many articles on why our universe is most likely closed.  So, if it were closed, where is the boundary?  Well, the universe could have an oval orbit like many objects, large and small, but let’s be more adventurous.  Perhaps, we should think like Einstein and examine a four-dimensional universe.

When you add the fourth dimension, time, you need to be creative since the edge of our universe might be much more different than what you would expect in a three-dimensional object.  So, what if the boundary were flexible like a time bubble that could expand and contract?  What if the edge were not so much a three-dimensional location, but instead a moment in time?

Let’s speculate.  What if the Big Bang were nothing more than the entry point for all the mass and energy, including high-energy neutrinos?  Maybe after several million years, the Big Bang event, which probably was a fireball, started to cool down.  The lights went out.  Quite possibly, there were about 100 million years of no activity that was visible.

The Dark Ages of our universe more than likely saw a reversal from expansion to contraction.  The first stars and ancient galaxies probably were not formed until the hydrogen gases were compacted to the point that the heat was so intense that they ignited, much like stars are created today.

The majority of scientists believe that the universe is expanding at an increasing rate.  I suppose that this is possible if dark energy were drawing the visible matter out into infinity, but that sounds like an open universe with no boundaries.  If you believe our universe is closed, the only theory that makes any sense is that the universe is collapsing at an increasing speed as it races back toward its origin.

Why is our universe closed?  Everything that we know in our universe has design.  Even activities that appear to be chaotic have a reason and lead to a purpose.  God is the Designer.  As an example, electrons, planets, and galaxies move in closed orbits.  God’s world moves in cycles.  Since we cannot see the other side of the Big Bang, there must be a boundary that hides it.  The galaxies in the universe seem to be interconnected within an oval egg shell that expands and contracts over time.  The law of conservation of matter and energy states that matter and energy are neither created nor destroyed in our universe.  This matter and energy that remains the same total amount forever must be encased by a boundary for this theory to be true.

An open universe with only expansion that continues into a Deep Freeze with all matter reaching a final destination that has no purpose does not fit within God’s design.  An open universe theory supports a chaotic, purposeless system that is advocated by atheists.  Large stars would burn out, leaving only smaller stars to burn out, until all the hydrogen was used.  Scientists believe that the Deep Freeze will be the end of our universe.  But it serves no purpose.  It does not fit within God’s ultimate design for the universe.  God did not design a dying universe.

So, if time created the boundary for our universe, which can alternate between expansion and contraction, does that mean that time can go backwards?  It might from our perspective.  In other words, from our position on earth, a reversal might appear to be headed back in time to the ancient galaxies and the Big Bang event.  But if we were outside the time bubble, we might simply view our bubble getting very small as the compaction increased into the Big Crunch.

What in the universe could be driving this time machine, alternating between expansion and contraction?  Well, since our visible universe is only about 3% of the universe, dark matter and dark energy are the likely forces.  God probably designed a universe that could exist for an infinite amount of time.  This makes sense if you consider that time could be a closed fourth dimension perpetually expanding and shrinking or from our perspective, going forward and then backward in time.  Frankly, whether we are moving toward a Big Bang or Big Crunch may not matter since it could lead to the same result, so whether time is going forward or backward may not matter either.

God banished Adam and Eve from his kingdom probably into a universe without end like ours.  The only way to return to God might be to leave this universe.  There appear to be three heavens or judgments that must be passed in order to reach this goal.  2 Corinthians 12:2.  The first heaven, which has been described as being on earth, should be the easiest to obtain through belief and faith.  But the other two might be increasingly difficult.  The first death probably separates believers from nonbelievers based on God’s grace.  The second death is mentioned in the Bible when we are judged based on our works.  Revelation 20:13-14.  If we fail this test, we are cast into the lake of fire.  Revelation 20:15.

As Jesus said, “Because straight is the gate, and narrow is the way, which leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it.”  Matthew 7:14.  Revelation indicates that only 144,000 will be redeemed from earth.  Revelation 14:3.  The fate of Adam and Eve or humankind probably cannot be reversed without a superhuman effort that counters the Devil’s deceit in the second heaven.  Certainly, turning everything over to God should create the necessary unification with God to enter the third heaven, God’s kingdom.  But anything outside the Bible is just guesswork.  We will not know for certain until we die, but being prepared for anything is not a bad idea.

Even though this article is highly speculative, it is always interesting to ask the question:  why can Hubble see the ancient galaxies?  If the light from that ancient object, which no longer exists, started its race in a straight line toward Hubble about 13 billion years ago wouldn’t it have passed us?  If you believe we have been constantly expanding since the Big Bang at less than the speed of light, how could we see any ancient light?

I suppose you could argue that the universe is curved so that the light from ancient galaxies has raced around and is coming back for a second viewing.  But it seems more likely from our perspective that we are going back in time towards not only ancient light, but also the Big Bang itself.

Again, this is only a somewhat edgy theory, but it is possible that our universe is a time machine that can alternate between a Big Bang and a Big Crunch forever.  In that sense, we are in an infinite prison of our own sinful devise.  God and Jesus have shown us a way out, but how many will actually leave this universe?