The Knobs

The Knobs is a physiographic region located in central Kentucky, which looks like a horseshoe south of Lexington with the ends of the horseshoe reaching up and touching the Ohio River.  The Knobs are quite distinctive, including hundreds of knobby hills forming a circular pattern.

These hills are actually monodnocks, which were formed through erosion over thousands of years.  The original Mississippi Plateau had ancient rivers that carved the shales, including the Borden Formation dating back to the Mississipian epoch deposited about 330 to 360 million years ago.  The capstone for these hills can be either limestone like Mississipian Harrodsburg or sandstone.  Since these rocks resisted erosion better than the shales, the knobs were formed, much like the Grand Canyon, but on a much smaller scale.

However, one question still remains:  why was this region circular?  In other words, if erosion were the only force at work on this region, what formed the circle?  Certainly, streams meander and erode irregularly.  Erosion came after the creation of the circular pattern, so what was the original cause for the circular feature?

There has been little study of a theory that the circular part of the Knobs originally carried up across the Ohio River into southeastern Indiana and southwestern Ohio, forming a complete circle.  The glaciers removed the evidence of that northern formation of the Knobs.  The scouring of the land by glaciers stopped very close to the Ohio River.

So, what happened somewhere between about 350 million years ago and the ice ages?  And what could have created a gargantuan circular depression?  Since we don’t find any evidence of igneous formations, we can rule out volcanic eruptions.  This leaves us to ponder whether there is any evidence of a huge meteorite crashing into this area millions of years ago?  An astrobleme would be circular.

If such a meteorite hit this area, it would have caused a mass extinction.  There are three mass extinctions that could be possibilities during this period, and they were the Permian, the Triassic-Jurassic, and the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions.  We know about the mass extinction during the Cretaceous-Tertiary time, which wiped out the dinosaurs.  There is a large crater in Mexico that may be the evidence for such a meteorite impact.  This Knobs crater might have been created by a meteorite or comet that could have caused one of the largest extinctions like the Permian, sometimes called “The Great Dying.”  However, this is only speculation.

We need more evidence.  We need to study this potential crater to see if there is any evidence to support this theory.  There could be iridium or some other elements associated with meteorites in the area.  As far as I know, geologists have not studied this area to determine if there is any evidence of this being an impact area.

We do know that smaller meteorites have struck this part of the state, and those impacts have created similar upheavals that cannot be explained by typical mountain building processes, but on a much smaller scale.

There is sufficient evidence to make us think that something huge may have caused a circular pattern in the north-central part of Kentucky with the northern part of that circle in Indiana and Ohio being erased by subsequent ice ages.  We need to treat this meteorite theory as a new hypothesis that should be tested.

Acceleration of Distant Galaxies

Scientists have observed that objects three times more distant are accelerating three times faster than nearby galaxies.  And this proportional increase seems to continue the further out we examine galaxies.  In other words, galaxies six times further out would have speeds six times more than our acceleration.

So what is causing the increased acceleration?  Well, if you believe only in the inflation theory which ends in a Deep Freeze, then you might argue that the galaxies near us are slowing down to speeds less than those of the past.  This would mean that the universe would eventually come to an end with the stars dying out and our universe coming to a halt.

However, the constant multiplications with the distance would quickly run past the speed of light.  Perhaps a doubling would be under that speed limit, but a tripling would be suspect and four and five times our acceleration speed would most likely exceed 186,000 miles per second.   There should be a point of diminishing returns on this increased acceleration, so that the multiplication would start slowing down somewhere in deep space, but this has not been observed.  The increased speeds through straight-line multiplication do not make sense.

But the inflation theory also makes no sense in a universe that has orbits in both the macro and micro world.  This inflation theory of entropy, if decreasing in so many multiples from early accelerations, would have slowed us down to nothing.  The stars would have already exhausted their hydrogen supply.  We would be in the Deep Freeze.  And this is not the case.

So what else might be causing this anomaly of rapid acceleration, going back in time?  If the space-time fabric could both expand and then contract, there would be no limitation by the speed of light because this speed limit only applies to objects.  And if we are now in a contraction stage, then from our perspective, distant galaxies might appear to be multiplying the speeds when it is really a duplication of speeds.  In other words, as the near galaxies contracted backwards, they would only have normal acceleration.  But the distant galaxies that were also contracting back in time would have layers of acceleration from the new acceleration added on to the past accelerations.

Further, as we viewed more distant galaxies, the speeds of objects measured in the space-time fabric could also be layered with multiple accelerations which exceeded the speed of light.  So that the six times could actually be caused by a shrinking space-time fabric, carrying the galaxies back towards the Big Bang.  Of course, these are theories that must be challenged by hard facts, but right now that is all we have.

The acceleration may stop where the space-time fabric reversed itself.  The multiplication of accelerations would not continue into the point where the ancient galaxies were in a space-time fabric that was expanding.  It would probably only go back to the point when the space-time fabric was shrinking.  It will be interesting to examine the multiplications that we discover in the future.

Expanding the Expansion Theory

Why do scientists get so entrenched in the theory that our universe is expanding?  Since Edwin Hubble discovered the red shift, scientists have gotten into the expansion rut and can’t seem to entertain other possibilities.

There is a major practical problem with the expansion theory.  It does not comport with the design of the universe, which typically is based on orbits in both the macro and micro worlds.  The expansion theory starts with the Big Bang and ends with the Big Freeze with all the stars eventually consuming all their hydrogen and with everything coming to an end somewhere in deep space.  There is absolutely nothing in our universe that resembles this design.

It is more likely that we have a universe which is much larger than we can even imagine, so that we cannot see the slight curvature of this circular universe.  Our current understanding of our universe may be similar to how early man perceived our earth as being flat.  Scientists have determined that the visible universe is only about 3 to 4% of the mass in our universe, so we can see only about 50 billion light years in all directions of our observable universe.  But how could our universe possibly have expanded approximately 100 billion light years within 13.8 billion years?

It is possible that the early expansion could have traveled faster than the speed of light, but this does not explain everything.  Could the diameter of 100 billion light years, much of which is in the past, be part of a space-time fabric that could expand faster than the speed of light?  And could that space-time fabric both expand and collapse like an accordion?  What if the time reversed from a Big Bang to a Big Crunch or from present-future to past-future?  Would we be able to detect the reversal?  Or would it all appear the same to us from our perspective?

If there were no reversal in the space-time fabric, how could we ever view the light from ancient galaxies, which no longer exist, since that light would have traveled faster than our expansion?  In other words, how could we see a light that streaked into the future past us billions of light years ago?

But scientists say that Hubble’s red shift proves that we are expanding.  However, if the galaxies in our universe were collapsing at the same rate, wouldn’t this also have a red shift?  In other words, these galaxies would be shrinking away from each other with the same red shift as if they were expanding away from each other.

I can only ask questions, but scientists who are stuck in the expansion theory do not want to hear these questions.  That is unfortunate because questions lead to better answers and, in this case, better theories.

 

Expansion of Universe?

Why do scientists get so entrenched in the expansion of the universe theory?  Since Edwin Hubble discovered the red shift which led to the argument that our universe is expanding, scientists have gotten into the expansion rut and can’t seem to entertain other possibilities.

There are some practical problems with the expansion theory.  First of all, it does not comport with the design of the universe, which is in orbits or some other forms that permit an infinite movement.  Our universe recycles and does not run out of gas.  The expansion theory starts with the Big Bang and ends with the Big Freeze with all the stars eventually consuming all the hydrogen and everything coming to an end in the dark somewhere in deep space.  There is nothing in our universe that shares this design.

It is more likely that we either have a universe that is much larger than we can even imagine, so that we cannot see the slight curvature in the circular universe.  Our current understanding of our universe may be similar to how early man perceived our earth as being flat.

We could also have an alternating pattern between the Big Bang and the Big Crunch or a space-time fabric that moved back and forth between present-future to past-future.  Or we could speculate that after a period of expansion, then we switched back to a period of contraction.  These theories are better suited for the patterns that we see in our universe.

There also are practical problems with the expansion theory.  How could we view the light from ancient galaxies, which no longer exist, since that light would have traveled faster than our expansion?  In other words, how could we see a light that streaked into the future past us billions of light years ago?  Further, how could a universe that is 100 billion light years wide have expanded into this depth of field within 13.8 billion years?

Observations have revealed that objects three times more distant are moving three times faster relative to nearby galaxies, and the farther we look into space, the faster the galaxies are moving.  In fact, they may surpass the speed of light at these vast distances. However, the speed of light is the universal speed limit. So how can this be?

Well, the speed of light is the fastest that objects can travel.  This restriction does not apply to space and time.  For example, in the period after the Big Bang, this early expansion probably exceeded the speed of light.  Also, our view back into space, which is also back in time, may be distorted by time itself, which is not restricted by the speed limits.

It is also possible that the actual universe extends much farther than we can comprehend.  The observable universe may be about 50 billion light years in all directions, but the actual universe may be infinitely larger than that.  This might be a good argument for our universe actually being in a never-ending gargantuan orbit with our view only reaching the horizon embracing a small piece of the universe.

But back to the question of how a universe that is about 100 billion light years wide could be formed in only 13.8 billion years?  Well, as we said, some of that early expansion could have been faster than the speed of light, but that probably does not explain everything.  Could that 100 billion light years, much of which is in the past, be in a space-time fabric that can move faster than the speed of light?  And if some of that time reversed from present-future to past-future, would we be able to detect the reversal?  Would it all appear the same to us from our perspective?

I can only ask questions, but scientists who are so stuck in the expansion theory do not want to hear questions.  That is unfortunate because questions lead to better answers and, in this case, better theories.

How to Be a Better Person

Some days were better than others, but I was constantly working toward becoming a better person.  In the beginning, I focused entirely on myself.  I tried to straighten myself up and iron out all the rough edges.  But I found out that I was not permanent press.  My life was never smooth, so I found that I was applying more pressure and heat from within in my efforts to iron out my rough patches.  It was very frustrating as the wrinkles kept returning.

Finally, I realized that we are human.  That is how we are made.  We can’t change that.  Only our Creator can change any of that.  In order for me to straighten up my life, I had to reach out to my Creator.  I had to become one with God in order to become a better person.  I could not do it by myself.  Unification with God was the only way to be a better person.  Once God is in your life, you instantly become a different and better person.

When you attempt to become a better person by yourself, you end up comparing yourself to other humans.  You settle.  You see your neighbor having extra-marital affairs, so you congratulate yourself for avoiding that.  You feel like you are a better person by comparing yourself to others in your neighborhood.  If you are better than most of your neighbors, then you must be a better person.  That is not becoming a better person.  That is settling for what you are.  Instead of improving yourself, you measure yourself against other humans and attempt to make yourself feel like a better person, rather than actually being a better person.

However, when you hook up with God and bring Him into your life, you are starting that journey to becoming a better person.  In many ways, Jesus was a Gnostic.  He became one with God like the Gnostics.  But Jesus took the unification to the highest level.  He became God.  That is the next step beyond unifying with God.  He was God.  I believe that can only happen with perfect humans.  Since I am a poor wretch, far from perfect, I can only become one with God.  But that is good enough to start down the path of being a better person.

If God is inside you, you immediately become a better person.